MaderBio10_Ch19_Outline - Mader/Biology 10/e Chapter...

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Mader/ Biology , 10/e – Chapter Outline Chapter 19 19.1 Systematics 1. Systematics is a field of biology dedicated to understanding the evolutionary history of life on Earth 2. Taxonomy is the branch of biology concerned with identifying, naming, and classifying organisms. A. Linnean Systematics 1. A natural system of classification reflects the evolutionary history of organisms. 2. Naming and identifying organisms began with the Greeks and Romans. 3. In the Middle Ages, organisms were described using long Latin descriptions. 4. John Ray (1627-1705), a British naturalist, argued that each organism should have a set name. B. The Binomial System 1. The number of known organisms expanded greatly in mid-eighteenth century due to European travel. 2. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) developed the binomial system to name species. 3. The binomial system of nomenclature names organisms using a two-part Latin name. a. First part is the genus ; closely related species are assigned to the same genus. b. Second part is the specific epithet ; it usually provides something descriptive about an organism. c. A scientific name consists of both genus and specific epithet (e.g., Lilium buibiferum and Lilium canadense ). d. Both names are italicized or underlined; the first letter of the genus name is capitalized. e. The genus can be abbreviated when used with a specific epithet if the full name was given before. 4. Common names vary with different languages, lump many species under one name or have various names for the same species, and the same name may refer to different organisms in different regions. 5. The job of naming all species is far from finished. C. Linnean Classification Categories 1. Aristotle classified life into 14 groups (e.g., mammals, birds, etc.), and subdivided them by size. 2. Ray grouped animals and plants according to how he thought they were related. 3. Linnaeus grouped plants by flower parts; his categories were published in Systema Naturae in 1735 4. Today, taxonomists use seven categories of classification: species, genus, family, order, class, phylum , and kingdom . 10
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