Complete formal lab 2 - 1 Acid-Base Reactions Dr Peter A...

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1 Acid-Base Reactions Dr. Peter A. Roessle Report By: Delaney Bryan Lab Partners: Daniel Hill and Destin Poole Lab Performed on: 6/20/16 Date Submitted _____________
2 Abstract: In this two week experiment, reactions occurring between aqueous acids and bases were investigated. First, a solution of sodium hydroxide was standardized using KHP (potassium hydrogen phthalate). Second, the standardized sodium hydroxide was used to titrate an unknown solution of HCl. Thirdly, the mass percent of acetic acid in household vinegar was determined through experimentation and compared to the one on the label. In the final experiment, the heat change from the reaction of 2.0M HCl and 2.0M NaOH was recorded through LabQuest and analyzed further. Introduction: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the percent acetic acid in vinegar. The process of obtaining quantitative information of a sample using a fast chemical reaction by reacting with a certain volume of reactant whose concentration is known is called titration according to . When an acid-base reaction is used, the process is called an acid-base titration. When the acid and base are mixed, the H ions contributed by the acid combine with the OH ions from the base to form water: + ¿ H ¿ (aq)+ ¿ OH ¿ (aq)   H O(l). The point where the base has neutralized the acid is called the equivalence point. At the equivalence point the following relationship holds: M H + V acid = M OH V base. Experimental Apparatus and Procedure: Reference:
3 Acid-Base Reactions Adapted by Dr. Peter A. Roessle p.1 - 7 Data and Results: Observations: The percent acid on the Vinegar label is 13.2%. Raw Data: Experiment 1: Standardization of 0.1 M NaOH Experiment 2: Titration of 1.0 M HCl Experiment 3: Percent Acetic Acid in Vinegar. Experiment 4: Heat of Neutralization. Results and Observations:
4 Experiment 1: Standardization of 0.1 M NaOH In experiment one the standardization of the solution of 0.1M sodium hydroxide is done using potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP). A .2049g and .2041g sample were dissolved in 40mL of distilled water in trail 1 and 2 respectively. Then, 0.1 M NaOH was titrated until the indicator showed standardization of the solution. This took 11.8mL and 10.0mL of NaOH for trail 1 and 2 respectively. Which through equation (5) of reference gave NaOH a molarity of . 0850M and .0999M respectively, and an average molarity of .092M. Experiment 2: Titration of 0.1 M HCl In experiment two the standardized sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was used to titrate an unknown solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to more accurately determine the molarity of HCl. This was done over two trails starting with a 15.1mL and a 15.2 mL sample of HCl. Then, 0.1M NaOH was titrated to the solution in volumes of 11.8mL and 15 mL respectively. From this the molarity of HCl was found to be .08M and .1M respectively through equation (3) from the reference. Which gave an average molarity of .9M for HCl.

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