Unformatted text preview: LongTerm Memory
Longterm memory store: Our accumulated knowledge base Characteristics Duration: Hours to years Capacity: Hugepossibly limitless Sets of nonsense syllables (taf, rit, dut) learned to mastery Hermann Ebbinghaus: The Forgetting Curve QuickTim TIFFneeded are (Uncom QuickTimea and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Types of LTM
Explicit Memory Semantic Memory Episodic Memory Implicit Memory Implicit vs. Explicit Memories Implicit memories Explicit memories Cannot be voluntarily called to mind and verbalized Include procedural memorymotor skills Can be voluntarily called to mind and verbalized Consist of both factual knowledge (semantic) and memory for personal experiences (episodic) Implicit Memories Types: Classically conditioned responses Habits Skills Priming effects Is" night" spelled with a K? Implicit Memories: Acquiring Motor Skills
Controlled processing Awareness, Attention and Intention Automatic processing None of the abovecan multitask! Consolidation The process of forming a relatively permanent memory trace in LTM may take several years! (Manns et al., 2003) Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) Consolidation of explicit memories involves the hippocampus disruption of memory for random, recent events that would be in early LTM Amnesia
Retrograde amnesia Anterograde amnesia Amnesia Patient H.M.bilateral temporalobectomy
1953 surgery Most explicit memories intact No new explicit memories Clive Wearing (video) Movies: Anterograde Amnesia: Memento, 50 First Dates Retrograde Amnesia: "soapopera" amnesia What would H.M.'s serial position curve look like? Can't consolidate new LTM # of words recalled 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Reconsolidation Recalling information changes the information as it is reconsolidated. Implications for memory accuracy
Flashbulb memories Eyewitness memories "repressed" memories Retrieval: More Than the Past Experimental Demonstration of False Memories Words Elizabeth Loftus and colleagues The Repressed Memory Debate Are they real memories that are forced out of consciousness and then later emerge, as hypothesized by Freud, or are they false memories? Evidence is mixed Biological Foundations of Memory Longterm potentiation (LTP) strengthening connections between the sending and receiving neurons that underlies memory storage What Causes Forgetting? Decay Theory that memories fade over time because relevant connections between neurons are lost Interferences Theory that the disruption of the ability to remember one piece of information is caused by the presence of other information Retroactive: New information interferes with old Proactive: Old information interferes with new ...
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