ch12 - Chapter 12 Work motivation The capacity and willingness to expend effort is the motivational/will do component of behaviour Work motivation

ch12 - Chapter 12 Work motivation The capacity and...

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Chapter 12: Work motivation The capacity and willingness to expend effort is the motivational/“will do” component of behaviour Work motivation refers to the domain of motivational processes directed to the realm of work o Three components: 1. Direction addresses the choice of activities we make in expending effort 2. Intensity implies we have the potential to exert various levels of effort, depending on how much we need to expend 3. Persistence reflects duration of motivation over time Paradox of motivation on one hand it is conceptualized as a continuous stream that runs through our lives, yet our focus and attention in life are directed to events that are bounded by time (have a beginning and an end) One conception of motivation is that it accounts for the difference between typical and maximum performance o Typical performance = what they will do o Maximum performance = what they can do Five critical concepts in motivation 1. Behaviour the action from which we infer motivation 2. Performance assessment of the behaviour as judged against some standard 3. Ability one of 3 determinants of behaviour; what you can do 4. Situational factors second determinant of behaviour; facilitate or constrain behaviour; what you are allowed to do 5. Motivation third determinant of behaviour; what you will do Behaviour is at its maximum when a person has: o High ability o High motivation o Supportive environment “Poor performance” can be attributed to 4 factors: 1. Organization may have high standards 2. Individual may lack the needed ability to exhibit the desired behaviour 3. Individual may lack the motivation to exhibit the desired behaviour 4. Individual may lack the needed equipment or opportunity to exhibit the behaviour Work motivation theories Expectancy theory o Statement of the theory Expectancy theory a theory of motivation based on the perceived degree of relationship between how much effort a person expends and the performance that results from that effort A cognitive theory since each person is assumed to be a rational decision maker who will expend effort on activities that lead to desired rewards Five major parts to this theory: 1. Job outcomes ex. Pay, promotions, vacation time, getting fired, transferred, feelings of recognition, etc 2. Valences employee’s feelings about the outcomes; positive or negative valence to each outcome 3. Instrumentality the perceived degree of relationship between performance and outcome attainment; 0-1; 0 means outcome is unrelated to performance, 1 means completely related; could be -1.0 to +1.0 4. Expectancy perceived relationship between effort and performance; 0 means no probability of a relationship, 1 means there is one; usually only one expectancy value is perceived by the employee to reflect the effort-performance in his/her job 5. Force amount of effort or pressure within the employee to be motivated Force is the product of valence, instrumentality, an expectancy:
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  • Fall '16
  • John Meyer
  • 25%, 50 percent, 24%, 75 percent, 34%

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