ch8 - Chapter 8 Organizations and Organizational Change Metaphor of equating an organization with a person except organizations dont have defined

ch8 - Chapter 8 Organizations and Organizational Change...

This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 6 pages.

Chapter 8: Organizations and Organizational Change Metaphor of equating an organization with a person except organizations don’t have defined boundaries as we do with our skin Three theories of organizations Organizations collectivities of parts that cannot accomplish their goals as effectively if they operated separately o A coordinated group of people who perform tasks to produce goods or services Classical theory o Classical theory of organizations describes the form and structures of organizations o Four basic components to any organizations: 1. A system of differentiated activities a formal org emerges when these activities are linked together 2. People perform tasks and exercise authority 3. Cooperation around a goal must exist among the people to achieve a unity of purpose in pursuit of their common goals 4. Authority established through superior-subordinate relationships o Functional principle the concept that organizations should be divided into units that perform similar functions Accounts for the grouping of work functions into units like production, sales, engineering, finance, etc Relates to the horizontal growth of the organizations the formation of new functional units along the horizontal dimension o Scalar principle concept that organizations are structured by a chain of command that grows with increasing levels of authority Deals with vertical growth; hierarchy Unity of command each subordinate should be accountable to only one supervisor o Line/Staff principle concept of differentiating organizational work into primary and support functions Line functions org work that directly meets the major goals of an organization (like manufacturing the product Staff functions org work that supports line activities (like personnel and quality control) o Span-of-Control principle refers to the number of subordinates a manager is responsible for supervising “Small” span -of-control = 2 subordinates tall organizations (many levels of hierarchy) “Large” span-of-control = ~15 flat organizations o There is little that is “psychological” about classical theory – influence from psychology came up in neoclassical theory Neoclassical theory o Neoclassical theory describes psychological or behavioural issues associated with organizations o Originates in Hawthorne studies o Problems with division of labour Sense of alienation from highly repetitive work = work dissatisfaction = decreased efficiency o Neoclassicists argued for a less rigid division of labour for more humanistic work in which people derive a sense of value and meaning from their jobs o Although the scalar principle prescribes formal lines of authority, in reality many sources operating in an organization influence the individual o The black and white di stinction between line and staff functions aren’t so clear in practice o
Image of page 1

Subscribe to view the full document.

Image of page 2

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Ask Expert Tutors You can ask bonus questions You can ask questions ( expire soon) You can ask questions (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes