Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 I. Social Perception and Social...

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Chapter 3 I. Social Perception and Social Identity: Understanding Others and Ourselves a. Social Perception: What are Others Like? i. People try to take what is known about a person and make it into a larger picture ii. Completely automatic b. Social Identity: Who are you? i. How we identify ourselves is likely to be based on our uniqueness in a group ii. We may identify more with a social identity or more with a personal identity II. Attribution Process: Judging the causes of others’ Behavior a. Making Correspondent Inferences: Using Acts to Judge Disposition i. Learn how people will act by observing ii. Challenges in Judging Others Accurately 1. When working people tend to conceal some of their traits 2. May be conditional or may be a regularly thing iii. Making Inferences About Others 1. Were we expecting them to act that way or did they? b. Casual Attribution of Responsibility: Answering the Question “Why?” i. It is important to determine whether a person’s behavior is due to internal or external causes ii. Kelly’s Theory of Casual Attribution 1. We collect information about a person before we make decisions about why they acted as they did III. Perceptual Biases: Systematic Errors in Perceiving Others a. The Fundamental Attribution Error i. People are not equally predisposed to reach judgments regarding internal/external causality easier to assume internal causes b. The Halo Effect; Keeping Perceptions Consistent i. Once an impression is formed you are more likely to see the person in that light
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ii. In a group, problems are blamed on one person, success is considered positive for the whole group c. The Similar-To-Me Effect: “If You’re Like Me, You Must Be Pretty Good” i. You perceive people more like you as being good d. Selective Perception: Focusing on Some Things While Ignoring others i. We pay attention to some stimuli but not to others e. First- Impression Error: Confirming One’s Expectations i. We tend to see things that go along with our first impressions ii. Can be seen in interviews f. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: The Pygmalion Effect and the Golem Effect i. When you expect someone to do well, they tend to do well b/c you help them to succeed ii. When someone is expected to do poorly, they do b/c no extra consideration is given to them iii. Good at work to expect someone to do well they actually do well IV. Stereotyping: Fitting People into Categories a. Why Do We Rely on Stereotypes? i. We don’t want to think a lot, easier just to go with assumptions b. The Dangers of Using Stereotypes in Organizations i. Negative Organizational Impact: Inaccurate Information 1. Fate of some persons job is sealed b/c people have predetermined how they will be treated ii. Negative Individual Impact: Sterotype Threats 1. People tend to live up/down to expectations 2. Stereotypes constrain behaviors 3. Can lower peoples’ performance V. Perceiving Others: Organizational Applications a. Employment Interviews: Managing Impressions to Prospective Employment
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i. A good impression is important
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This note was uploaded on 03/14/2008 for the course ILROB 1220 taught by Professor Goncaloj during the Fall '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 I. Social Perception and Social...

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