03-Booting

03-Booting - CSE 265: System and Network Administration...

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Spring 2006 CSE 265: System and Network Administration ©2006 Brian D. Davison CSE 265: CSE 265: System and Network Administration System and Network Administration System startup and shutdown Bootstrapping Booting PCs Boot loaders Booting into single user mode Startup scripts Rebooting and shutting down
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Spring 2006 CSE 265: System and Network Administration ©2006 Brian D. Davison Bootstrapping Bootstrapping i.e., starting the computer i.e., starting the computer System is particularly vulnerable to errors Steps in boot process Execution of boot code in ROM Loading and initialization of kernel Device detection and configuration Creation of spontaneous system processes Operator intervention (manual boot only) Execution of system startup scripts Multiuser operation
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Spring 2006 CSE 265: System and Network Administration ©2006 Brian D. Davison Kernel initialization Kernel initialization Kernel is a program First real task is to load and run /boot/vmlinuz Other examples: /unix, /vmunix Two steps Load small booting program (bootloader) Booting program loads kernel Kernel then begins to run
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Spring 2006 CSE 265: System and Network Administration ©2006 Brian D. Davison Hardware configuration Hardware configuration Kernel examines system environment Tries to locate and initialize every device that it is supposed to have Hardware configuration info in kernel is often underspecified Probes buses for devices and asks drivers for info (i.e., which interrupt, which PCI address, etc.) Drivers can sometimes be added later
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Spring 2006 CSE 265: System and Network Administration ©2006 Brian D. Davison Spontaneous” system processes Spontaneous” system processes Not created via usual fork mechanism init is always process 1 Plus special memory and kernel processes kflushd, kupdate, kpiod, kswapd Not really processes (portions of kernel) Everything else (other processes) are started via init Optionally view such processes on wume4 with “ ps -aux | more”
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Spring 2006 CSE 265: System and Network Administration ©2006 Brian D. Davison Operator intervention Operator intervention (manual booting) (manual booting) Kernel tells init if single-user mode is desired Typically requests root password
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03-Booting - CSE 265: System and Network Administration...

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