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Unformatted text preview: Ch. 12: Psychology Over the Life Span Getting a Start in Life Chromosomes--strands of DNA Gametes--each contribute 23 chromosomes 23 pairs in the fertilized zygote (see fig. 12.1) Genetically "programmed" developmental changes Example: ~prenatal week 8 the SRY gene on the Y chromosome activates, triggers cell development-->production of testosterone Maturation XX = female XY = male Stages of Development in the Womb Prenatal Stages: Zygote A fertilized egg Embryo 2 weeks to 8 weeks after conception 8 weeks until birth Fetus Most neurons present at birth ~80% of adult brain size by age 2 Continued growth due to: Synaptogenesis Myelination Dendritic branching Learning and Behavior in the Womb DeCasper & Fifer, 1980 The Cat in the Hat starting 6 weeks before birth DV = IV's = Teratogens Maternal illness Chicken pox, rubella, HIV Alcohol, heroin, cocaine Alcohol and drugs Caffeine and smoking Diet and pollution Malnutrition Too much mercury-containing fish (such as tuna) Maternal stressors List of common teratogens and their consequences: http://mostgene.org/gd/gdvol12h.htm Infancy and Childhood Perceptual development Visual perception Acuity:poor ( 20/200 to 20/800) in first couple of months of life. Images are blurry & must be very close to baby's eyes to be detected. By 6 mos. acuity is near adult-levels. Depth perception: Visual cliff experiment (Gibson & Walk, 1960) Habituation/looking time technique By 1 month: scan edges of objects Prefer contrasts & ignore interiors (e.g., view hairline, not facial features Focus on interior regions of objects. (e.g., stare more at eyes & mouth of a face vs. hairline). By 2 months: Jean Piaget Quic kTimeTM and a TIFF (Unc ompres sed) decompres sor are needed to see this picture. Basic cognitive processes Schemas Assimilation http://www.launchzilla.com/viewentry.php?e= 438 Accomodation Four Periods of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Period (0-2 years) Characteristics: Object permanence Imitation Preoperational Period (27 years) Lacking Conservation Major achievement Capacity for mental representation Egocentrism Concrete Operations Period Age 711 years Major achievements Formal Operations Period Age 11 years (at the earliest) Major achievements Beyond Piaget Piaget's theory greatly underestimated children's competencies Children develop a theory of mind ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2007 for the course PSYC 100 taught by Professor Madigan during the Spring '07 term at USC.
- Spring '07