Background:A fatty carboxylic acid contains a carboxylic acid group with a long carbon chain that canchange in length and may also contain double bonds. When the fatty acid contains only single bonds it is considered a saturated fatty acid. When the fatty acid contains one or more double bonds it is considered an unsaturated fatty acid. A triglyceride is a n ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids, there are many triglycerides, all depending on the oil source some are highly unsaturated. Mixed triglycerides are also very common where the three fatty acids are different. Saponification is the process where a triglyceride in common vegetable oil and break the three ester bonds. When an ester is exposed to heat under basic conditions, it decomposes. The resulting product is soap. Happens regardless of whether it is a simple ester or a trimester in a triglyceride.When an ester bond is broken an alcohol and carboxylic acid are produced. Under basic conditions, the carboxylic acid is deprotonated so there is a negative charge on the oxygen. The negatively charged oxygen is attracted to positively charged ions in the solution. Resulting in a carboxylic salt of the fatty acid, which is soap. When using any natural fat source, many differentfatty acids are mixed together.