080103__CHE_101_Full_Class_Notes_3

# 080103__CHE_101_Full_Class_Notes_3 - 2.3.6 NON IDEAL...

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2.3.6 NON IDEAL LIQUID-LIQUID OR LIQUID-GAS SYSTEMS Thought question: Is it better to store opened pop inside a fridge or on the counter? RAOULTS AND HENRY’S LAWS Concepts and Definition Raoult’s Law : ) ( * T p x P y P A A T A A = = Pa = partial pressure of component A yA = mole fraction in the gas phase of A Pt = Total pressure xA = mole fraction in the liquid phase of A pa*(T) = Vapour pressure of A at some temperature T Raoults Law is GENERALLY valid when x A 1 (i.e. pure liquid A). For ideal solutions it is valid for all values of x A . What is an Ideal solution?? When the components are similar to each other. Isomers of a chemical compound (eg. N-propyl alcohol, iso-propyl alcohol, Benzene and chloro-benzene) Example of a non-ideal solution. When the components are different from eachother. Oil and water, 1-decanol and methanol Henry’s law Henry’s law is GENERALLY valid at the opposite extreme, when Xa < < 1. ) ( T H x P y P A A T A A = = ) ( T H A =Henry’s Law constant (with units of pressure) if we divide both sides by the total pressure. ) ( ) ( T H x P T H x y xA A T A A A = = 1

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Now H xA is dimensionless, and can be used without needing to convert pressures to the correct units. For example, the presence of a non-condensable gas in the liquid phase (oxygen in water). EXAMPLE : Henry’s Law At an industrial site. 1,2,- dichloroethane (DCE) was detected at a concentration of 10 ppb (parts per billion) in the groundwater.
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