Ch 10 Modern Middle Eastern History - Chapter 10 Authoritarian Reform in Turkey and Iran Both Iran and Turkey had authoritarian rulers that promoted

Ch 10 Modern Middle Eastern History - Chapter 10...

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Chapter 10: Authoritarian Reform in Turkey and Iran Both Iran and Turkey had authoritarian rulers that promoted secularlism backed by national symbols The Ataturk Era in Turkey At the end of WW1, Istanbul was controlled by the Allies and CUP leaders fled the country Mehmet VI was sultan and he dismissed parliament shortly after The Treaty of Severs: o Italy and France divided southwestern Anatolia between them o Independent Armenian state created o Greece took Thrace and administrative control of Izmir o Turkish straits were under allied control o Finances of the government were controlled by the Allies o And the Capitulations were reinstated Turkish resistance forces rose against the occupation and Mustafa Kemal was one of the generals Other Ottoman generals deferred to Kemal and they finally united when Greece invaded Anatolia Greece took Izmir and Bursa and posed a significant threat to Kemal’s nationalist forces Kemal attempted to legitimize his government by convening a grand national assembly composed of various dissolved Parliament members and leaders of resistance groups They created the National Pact which renounced all claims to Arab provinces and affirmed the right to Turkish sovereignty in Anatolia Turkey and the Soviet Union invaded Armenia and divided it up This alliance freed concerns about the Soviet Union and allowed the nationalists to concentrate their forces against the Greeks France and Soviet Union recognized Kemal’s government in 1921 Kemal drove the Greeks out and marched to Istanbul, where they negotiated a peace treaty – Armistice of Mudanya o The Greeks would withdraw from Anatolia o A peace conference would be created to renegotiate the Treaty of Sevres The British invited delegates from Istanbul and Ankara in order to recognize the real Turkish government Kemal abolished the sultanate and made the caliphate as a purely religious office At the Lausanne Conference, a new Turkish state was created that was free of restrictions, domestic and financial The Turkish Straits remained under international supervision until 1936 The Reforms of the Ataturk Era Ataturk was born of modest means and built his reputation through the military
Moving the capital to Ankara, the heartland of the state, symbolized the Turkishness of

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