100%(1)1 out of 1 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 7 pages.
The Purpose and Promise of Special EducationChapter 1DATE: 1/19/2017Reinforcement– anything that increases the possibility that behavior will occurWho Are Exceptional Children?oExceptional children differ from the norm (either side of the average) – different in different places (either below or above) to such an extent that they require an individualized program of special educationFour key termsoImpairment - The loss or reduced function of a body part or organoDisability - Exists when an impairment limits the ability to perform certain tasksoHandicap - A problem encountered when interacting with the environmentNot all children with a disability are handicappedoAt risk - Children who have a greater-than-usual chance of developing a disabilityPoverty is a major risk factor in kids developing disabilities Continuum of Exceptionality:Distinction is not always clear; classification may change depending on environment.oa continuum of different skill levels and intelligencenot a clear line of “yes you have a disability or no you don’t”different in different places one livesHow Many Exceptional Children Are There?oIt is impossible to state the precise number Each state decides what the definition of disability is for itselfDifferent criteria used for identificationPreventive servicesImprecise nature of assessmentThe child may be eligible at one point in time and not eligible at anotherCant determine a learning disability correctly until 1stor 2ndgradeoChildren in special education represent about 9% of the school age populationoApproximately 75% of students with disabilities receive at least part of their education in regular classrooms1 in 10 kids have a disability across the countryoTwice as many boys have disabilities as girls (why?)Parents tend to reinforce the behaviors they expect to seeBoys are more physical, develop language laterGirls are more verbal – behaviors in classroom are more like what girls do rather than what boys doKids with Disabilities Interesting FactsoNumber of kids identified has grown every year since national count began: 1976-1977
New early intervention programs have been major contributor to increases since 1986oNumber increases from age 3 to 9, then decreases to 17Hard to get the label of needing sped except for people with speech impediments which is why it decreasesSpeech and language is the second most common special needNot being able to read is the reason it increases oBig 4, 80.5% of kids with disabilities: Learning Disabilities (42%)