Chapter 1 Purpose and Promise - The Purpose and Promise of Special Education Chapter 1 DATE Reinforcement anything that increases the possibility that

Chapter 1 Purpose and Promise - The Purpose and Promise of...

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The Purpose and Promise of Special Education Chapter 1 DATE: 1/19/2017 Reinforcement – anything that increases the possibility that behavior will occur Who Are Exceptional Children? o Exceptional children differ from the norm (either side of the average) – different in different places (either below or above) to such an extent that they require an individualized program of special education Four key terms o Impairment - The loss or reduced function of a body part or organ o Disability - Exists when an impairment limits the ability to perform certain tasks o Handicap - A problem encountered when interacting with the environment Not all children with a disability are handicapped o At risk - Children who have a greater-than-usual chance of developing a disability Poverty is a major risk factor in kids developing disabilities Continuum of Exceptionality: Distinction is not always clear; classification may change depending on environment. o a continuum of different skill levels and intelligence not a clear line of “yes you have a disability or no you don’t” different in different places one lives How Many Exceptional Children Are There? o It is impossible to state the precise number Each state decides what the definition of disability is for itself Different criteria used for identification Preventive services Imprecise nature of assessment The child may be eligible at one point in time and not eligible at another Cant determine a learning disability correctly until 1 st or 2 nd grade o Children in special education represent about 9% of the school age population o Approximately 75% of students with disabilities receive at least part of their education in regular classrooms 1 in 10 kids have a disability across the country o Twice as many boys have disabilities as girls (why?) Parents tend to reinforce the behaviors they expect to see Boys are more physical, develop language later Girls are more verbal – behaviors in classroom are more like what girls do rather than what boys do Kids with Disabilities Interesting Facts o Number of kids identified has grown every year since national count began: 1976-1977
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New early intervention programs have been major contributor to increases since 1986 o Number increases from age 3 to 9, then decreases to 17 Hard to get the label of needing sped except for people with speech impediments which is why it decreases Speech and language is the second most common special need Not being able to read is the reason it increases o Big 4, 80.5% of kids with disabilities: Learning Disabilities (42%)
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