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Unformatted text preview: Ch. 16: Social Psychology
Meeting of the Minds Social Cognition Impression formation Expectations Halo Effect Primacy Effect Selffulfilling prophecy Applies to self and to others "topdown" processing How angry is she? How sad is she? How interested is she in what you are saying? How sympathetic is she to your situation? QuickTime TIFFneeded to see and a are (Uncompressed) decomp this picture Attraction: Who do we like?
Opposites attract? Birds of a feather flock together? Similarity Proximity Physical attraction (or "chemistry") Assumed to relate to other "desirable attributes" Forming Biases The nature of LTM formation assimilating information into existing schemas
Strengthen ideas through Mere Exposure Effect Attitude Polarization Seek out or notice things consistent with our schemas Counteracting Biased Thoughts and Behaviors Increased contact Exposure to inconsistent information Combating stereotypes and prejudice specifically: Forces accommodating schemas Break down ingroup/outgroup divisions Mutual interdependence Recategorization, new shared identities The "jigsaw" classroom Consider the following issues:
Strongly Somewhat Neither Agree Somewhat Strongly Disagree Disagree nor Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 1.World hunger is a serious problem that needs attention. 2.Our country needs to address the growing number of homeless people. 3.The right to vote is one of the most valuable rights to U.S. citizens. 4.Our government should spend more money on helping citizens better their lives.
Rate each item from: Cognitive Dissonance
Unpleasant conflict between thoughts or feelings and actions.
1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 (A) Perform boring task. (B) Asked to lie to next participant and say it was interesting. Task Enjoyment No lie Control paid $20 paid $1 Cognitive Dissonance Dissonance theory Reducing mismatch between behaviors and feelings Selfperception theory assumes a negative arousal state Make inferences from our behaviors
purely a cognitive process Reducing Dissonance Direct strategies Indirect strategies Change behavior Change thoughts Quit smoking Rationalize you will after college numbers Highlight positives Justify behavior through At least you exercise often All of your friends smoke Attribution
An explanation for the cause of an event or behavior What caused that behavior? Internal attributions External attributions Dispositional attributions Situational attributions Situation You ace a test. You fail a test. Internal Type of Attribution External Attributional Biases Fundamental attribution error (aka "correspondence bias") about others Dispositional/internal attributions The selfserving bias
Situation YOUR OWN: Success Failure OTHERS: Success Failure Internal Type of Attribution External Belief in a just world Blaming the victim The Stanford Prison Experiment Yielding to Others Conformity Conformity: Asch's Studies
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76% of participants conformed at least once of the 12 times the group gave the wrong answer. 33% of total answers were wrong (conforming). 1 2 3 Obedience: The Milgram Studies
Teacher and Learner The Milgram Studies
Increasing Shocks for Errors The Milgram Studies 15 volts to 450 volts ("XXX") At 120 volts learner shouts in pain At 150 volts learner asks to stop At 300 volts learner pounds on wall At 330 volts learner stops responding Question: how far will teachers go? 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 % shocking Slight Moderate Strong Very Intense Extreme Danger: Strong Intensity Severe Shock XXX Helping Others Altruism Prosocial behavior Catherine Genovese murder Bystander intervention Bystander effect Evaluation apprehension Diffusion of responsibility ...
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