Sociology Exam 2 Lectures

Sociology Exam 2 Lectures - Sociology Exam 2 Notes Culture...

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Sociology Exam 2 Notes Culture o Instinct -Biological programming of behavior over which the species has no control. o Animals live by this o We don’t. o Culture - The values beliefs, behavior, and materials which distinguish a people’s way of life. o Non-material culture - ideas created by the members of society. o Material culture - physical things created by a society. o Values and Beliefs o Value - culturally defined standard that people use to decide what is good, desirable, and beautiful. o Belief - A specific statement a society holds to be true o Values and beliefs lead to Ideal Culture - how we should be (or how we imagine ourselves to be) o A value system is a hierarchy. It always places things above or below a certain point. o Nature vs. Nurture o In this debate, we often hear it as: Are we born this way? Is it in our cells to behave in such a manner? Or Did we learn to behave this way? Didn’t your mother teach you better? o Misdiagnoses We often misdiagnose culture as “Human Nature” Or, we may be tempted to make a Normative Judgment - Moral comparison (good/bad; right/wrong) based on what is normal. Arranged Marriages- It is not normal in the U.S., yet in India there are many more people and they have arranged marriages. When an American researcher says that is not the way we should do things (normative statement). Same thing with an Indian researcher. o Normal o Culture tells us what is normal o It becomes the baseline against which we compare everything else. o Normative - A moral baseline against which to compare other cultures. o Elements of Culture o Symbols - anything that carries meaning to the people of a culture.
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o Language - system of communication o Sapir-Whorf Thesis - language shapes reality (a causal relationship). o Does Language Shape Reality? Sapir-Whorf Thesis - people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language Example of the word “Propaganda” We do understand reality from our language. I’ll accept that language shapes reality. But language does not determine reality. o Cultural Transmission o Process by which one generation (or cohort) passes culture onto the next. o Language greatly facilitates complex cultural transmission. o Oral cultures to literate cultures. o Culture - Shared way of life. o Nation - Politically defined entity. o Society - Human interaction and their social structures. o Lakota (Sioux) Culture- Elements and Examples o Material- Food, songs, flutes, camps. o Non-Material- Stories, Technology, Migration patterns. o Language- Oral culture (labeled Sioux) o Symbols- Hoop, buffalo, horse o Dom/Sub/Counter- Tribes within nation, ghost dancers o Cultural transmission-through the mothers. o Dominant/Sub/Counter Culture o Dominant culture- widely accepted cultural patterns of a society.
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