Psychology Exam Study Guide

Psychology Exam Study Guide - Psychology Exam Study Guide...

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Psychology Exam Study Guide Different Kinds of Biases: Hindsight bias sometimes called the "I-knew-it-all-along" effect, is the inclination to see past events as being predictable Confirmation bias the tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions. Self-serving bias the tendency to claim more responsibility for successes than failures. It may also manifest itself as a tendency for people to evaluate ambiguous information in a way beneficial to their interests. Observer Bias - Tendency of observers to see what they expect to see. Courtesy Bias - Subjects answering surveys question in a way that they think the experimenter would want. Descriptive Studies: Aren’t actual experiments; they lead to hypotheses. o Naturalistic Observation- Simply observe; no interventions or tests. o Record behavior in naturally occurring situations o Major Advantage: Realistic picture of behavior. o Disadvantage- Observer effect, Observer bias, o To cancel out the disadvantages Participation Observation, and Blind Observers could be used. o Laboratory Observation- Watching animals or humans behave in a laboratory setting. o Advantages: Control over environment and subjects, Allows use of specialized equipment. o Disadvantages: Artificial situation may result in artificial behavior. Sample: Randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects. Population: The entire group of people or animals in which the researcher is interested. Ethics: o Experimenter has to keep the data confidential. o Has to allow subjects to quit at any time. o Deception has to be justified. o People have to have informed consent. o Participants must be protected at all times from physical and mental harm. o Participants must be debriefed at the end of the study.
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o Association areas - areas within each lobe of the cortex responsible for the coordination and interpretation of information, as well as higher mental processing. Structure of a Neuron:
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Psychology Exam Study Guide - Psychology Exam Study Guide...

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