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Phsychology Notes Chapter 2

Phsychology Notes Chapter 2 - Neuroscience The Biological...

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Neuroscience: The Biological Perspective “the mind is what the brain does” Chapter 2 Learning Objective Menu o LO 2.1 How parts of nervous system relate o LO 2.2 Neurons and nerves and how they work o LO 2.3 How neurons communicate o LO 2.4 Neurotransmitters o LO 2.5 How brain and spinal cord interact o LO 2.6 Somatic nervous system; interacting with surroundings o LO 2.7 Autonomic nervous system and reaction to stress o LO 2.8 Study of the brain and how it works o LO 2.9 Structures and functions of the bottom part of the brain o LO 2.10 Structures that control emotion, learning, memory, motivation o LO 2.11 Parts of cortex controlling senses and movement o LO 2.12 Parts of cortex responsible for higher forms of thought o LO 2.13 Differences between left side and right side of the brain o LO 2.14 Hormones interact with nervous system and affect behavior Overview of Nervous System o Nervous System - extensive network of specialized cells that carry information to and from all parts of the body. Neuroscience – deals with the structure and function of neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue. Relationship to behavior and learning Structure of the Neuron o Neurons - the basic cell that makes up the nervous system and which receives and sends information within that system.
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Neural Communication Neurons –building blocks of internal communication o 100 to 200 billion neurons in the brain alone o Average neuron has between 1000 and 10000 contacts o Some neurons in the cerebellum receive 150,000 contacts! o A mental code (i.e., mental representation) represents a particular thought, perception, memory, etc. Represented by a pattern of neurons firing simultaneously in several different locations in the brain o Our brain has trillions of connections which can be used to code trillions of mental representations Anatomy of a neuron 0. Dendrite bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages from other neurons and conduct them to the soma (cell body) 0. Soma – main “body” of a neuron Responsible for life of the cell; its metabolic center Genetic material stored here Information (neural impulses) is processed here 1. Axon – “tail” of a neuron long tube-like structure that carries the neural message to be sent to other neurons Action potential travels down the axon to the axon terminals 2. Axon terminals End of the axon and beginning of the junctions with other cells where messages are transferred via chemicals called neurotransmitters Other Types of Brain Cells o Glial cells - gray fatty brain cells that: provide support for the neurons to grow on and around, deliver nutrients to neurons produce myelin to coat axons clean up waste products and dead neurons.
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Neural Communication o Schwann cells – specialized glial cells that produce myelin [MY-uh- lin] o Myelin Sheath – fatty substances that coat the axons of neurons throughout the body to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse o Why is this so critical? (e.g., MS, ForF) o Schwann’ membrane
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