ex1_2008_key - Name Student ID Page 1 Zoology 470 Exam#1...

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Name: ______________________________________ Student ID:________________________ Page 1 Zoology 470 - Exam #1 – 2008 This exam has 5 pages and a total of 50 points . You will have 90 minutes to complete it. Answer all short answer questions as briefly as possible. Make sure your name and ID number are on all pages. Good luck! 1. Provide concise definitions for each of the following ( 6 points ) a. RESACT: A peptide derived from egg jelly in sea urchins. RESACT acts as a chemoattractant for sperm. b. axoneme: Microtubule-based structure that forms the core of flagella and cilia. The axoneme has a characteristic "9 + 2" microtubule structure in cross-section, in which the outer doublet MTs are connected to the central pairs by spoke proteins, and the outer doublets are connected to one another by linker proteins and flagellar/ciliary dynein. c. "Organizer": Originally identified by Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold, this group of cells that originates at the dorsal lip of the blastopore in amphibian gastrulae is responsible for inducing nearby cells to become the main embryonic axis. Implanting this tissue elsewhere will induce a secondary axis. 2. Reproduction in humans is regulated by hormones. A major pharmaceutical company has used this fact to develop commercial products. a. One way to produce "superovulation" (i.e., production of more than one oocyte at a time) for in vitro fertilization uses an estrogen-blocking drug called Clomiphene. Based on your knowledge of hormonal signaling during ovulation, explain why this would promote ovulation ( 2 points ): At a particular point in the ovulatory cycle, estrogen exerts negative feedback on the hypothalamus (and hence, indirectly, on the anterior pituitary). By blocking estrogen, this inhibition is removed, cause multiple follicles to mature simultaneously. b. A second product produced by this company is a home pregnancy test that tests for successful conception (i.e., fertilization) within 7 days of the event. What hormone does this product test for? ( 1 point ) Hormone: _______ hCG ________________ c. RU486 interferes with the normal function of progesterone during early pregnancy. What tissue is the most important target of progesterone that is affected by the drug? ( 1 point ) Tissue: ______ uterus ___________ d. What tissue(s) or cells normally produce progesterone? ( 1 point ) Tissue/cells: _____ corpus luteum in the ovary __________
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Name: ______________________________________ Student ID:________________________ Page 2 3. Circle true (T) or false (F) for each of the following ( 7 points ) F Targeted gene manipulation by homologous recombination is a technique that is specific to mouse ES cells, and not generally applicable to other mammals such as humans T Unlike some European Union countries, the United States has not passed legislation outlawing human cloning F Smoothened receptors are important in embryos because they allow attachment of migrating cells to the extracellular matrix T Unlike mammalian sperm, sea urchin sperm produce a long acrosomal process F
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