Study Guide for Exam 2 – Zoology 470 – 2008
Remember that you can expect a good chunk of the exam to be short answer questions (i.e., 1-2
sentence response). Other types of questions, including identification, multiple choice, matching,
and true/false, will also be present, but don't count on them being the largest portion of the exam. In
addition, there has been an emphasis in class on experiments and what they tell us about
mechanisms of early development. These are really important, and you should understand them
thoroughly. The text should be used to reinforce in-class material. Your best study hints will come
from last year’s exam. Remember that it’s on the course web site.
You are responsible for knowing the cleavage patterns presented in Gilbert,
Ch. 8, and representative examples of each.
Topics for Exam 2
? What ionic events are important for full egg activation (e.g.,
)? How does intracellular pH change following fertilization? What
experiments indicate the
is required for the onset of protein synthesis? What
experiments demonstrate that
is essential immediately after fertilization for
normal development, and that mRNA production is eventually required?
drive pronuclear migration, and what role is the
sperm aster thought to play in this process?
Cleavage and the Blastula
molecular motor protein
is involved? How does the
during early cleavages differ from that of cells in the adult (somatic cells)? What are
? What does this mean for the embryo? What are the basic
, and what organisms are good examples of each type? What is the difference between
radial and spiral cleavage
, and what groups of organisms display these types of cleavage? How
does the amount and position of
affect how cleavage occurs? What significant accomplishments
take place during cleavage (e.g.,
regionalization, blastocoel formation
, etc.)? How are astral
microtubules thought to stimulate where the cleavage furrow forms? Can you cite an experiment
that shows this? What is
, and why is it important in stimulating cleavage furrows?
2. Blastula structure
: How does the
of the egg affect blastula structure?
The Anatomy of Genes
What are the basic steps in the production and processing of mRNA? How does chromatin
structure affect the possibility of transcription? What are the functions of the various regions of
DNA associated with the production of a functional mRNA (e.g.,
region)? What are the functions of various
of an mRNA (e.g.,