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ex3_sg_08_final - Study Guide for Exam#3 Zoo 470 2008...

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Study Guide for Exam #3 - Zoo 470 – 2008 Reminder : Exam 3 will be held at 7:45 am, Saturday, May 17, in room 6210 Social Sciences. General comments : This exam is non-cumulative . However, if we reviewed a concept from earlier parts of the course, you will be responsible for it as it relates to topics in the last part of the course. Several tips: (1) The nature of the material on this exam means there is more terminology and that there are more terms that need to be learned that are pure vocabulary. For some students this is actually easier; for others with a lot of molecular/genetic/cell biological background, this aspect of Unit 3 is more difficult. (2) You may be asked to draw comparisons or cite more than one example where a pathway/process is used. One good example is the role β -catenin plays in diverse organisms; another might be similarities and differences between the Organizer equivalent in various vertebrates, etc. Important note : Remember that there is one thing you are expected to know that we covered in class but are primarily based on your reading: Brain vesicles and what they form. A. Sea urchin gastrulation What changes in adhesive affinity take place as primary mesenchyme cells ingress? How do we know that these changes take place? What are some ideas put forward to account for the initial invagination of the archenteron ? How does cell rearrangement result in lengthening of the archenteron? How do we know that rearrangement takes place? What role do the filopodia of secondary mesenchyme cells play during sea urchin gastrulation? What experiments tell us about their role? What experiments indicate that local pattern information is present in the sea urchin embryo for both primary and secondary mesenchyme cells? What role does the extracellular matrix play during sea urchin gastrulation? Note : Please check out the revised sea urchin materials on the course web site, at: http://worms.zoology.wisc.edu/dd2/echino/intro.html In particular, the section on Gastrulation and Patterning are really useful. B. Axis Specification and Gastrulation in Amphibians 1. Classic experiments on axis formation in amphibians : what is the gray crescent , and how can hair loop experiments be used to show the importance of something in this region of the fertilized egg? On which side of the animal hemisphere does the sperm entry point lie, in relation to the future dorsal side of the embryo? What cytoskeletal system drives cortical rotation in frogs? Can you cite experiments that show that cortical rotation, however it is induced, is sufficient for axis specification in frogs/ How can blastomere transplantation be used to show that dorsal, vegetal blastomeres have special properties with respect to axis formation (i.e., rescue of UV-treated eggs, production of double axes, etc.)? What is the "Nieuwkoop Center" , and what experiments suggest that it exists? What is the organizer experiment ?
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Zoo 470 2007 – Study Guide for Exam 3 Page 2 2. Molecular basis of mesoderm induction in amphibians : What role is β -catenin thought to play in mesoderm induction? How can we show this using mRNA
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