Collapse of the USSR

Collapse of the USSR - History 22 Ryan Collapse of the USSR...

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History 22, Ryan Collapse of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev, 1985-91 Generation of 1931 No stalinist legacy No participation in Great Patriotic War Gorbachev Third leadership generation Andropov’s protegé 20-25 years younger Reluctant reformer Gorbachev’s reforms Foreign policy : end the Cold War with US Economic : decentralized market reforms within socialism Political : limited democratization to mobilize the population for reform Why Reform? Economy not growing USSR Not Competing with US Social Factors Solution: tinker with system, or get rid of command economy? Why reform II: Changing Society (a new social base) Increasingly urbanized Rapidly growing educational levels Younger Generation intellectuals Old Social Contract Wearing Out? New leadership Style Young, confident, charismatic Good on TV Popular in West Gorbymania!!! Leninist Reformer or Democrat? Cautious Early Reforms
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Labor Discipline Anti Corruption Anti-Alcohol Campaign Early Policies Typical Not successful Gorbachev’s Reforms Glasnost (openness): civil society reform (1986) Perestroika (restructuring): economic reform (1987) Democratization: political reform (1988-89)
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