Chapter 25 - Chapter 25 The Great Depression and the New...

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Chapter 25: The Great Depression and the New Deal The Depression SpreadsBy 1932 industrial production was 50% of its 1929 levelSteel mills operated at 12% of capacity, auto factories at 20%Average of 100,000 workers a week were fired in first 3 years of depression, quarter of labor force was unemployed by 1932Shrinking wages and employment caused businesses to slash production more and lay off workers, further reducing purchasing power Commodity prices for farmers fell 55%Hoovervilles- shacks where people shivered, suffered, and starved, name was reflection of bitterness towards president Charities and local communities like soup kitchens could not meet the demands, and there was no welfare or unemployment compensation program “Women’s Jobs” and “Men’s Jobs”Women were less likely than men to be fired Were in low-paying jobs that were less vulnerable than heavy industries where men dominated Proportion of married women in workforce increased as women took jobs to help family survive, one third of working married women provided sole support for families Families in the DepressionJane Addams “I have watched fear grip the people in our neighborhood around Hull House” Divorce declined because it was expensive but desertion increased Birth-rates fell Husbands and fathers were humiliated and despondent when laid off from work, suicide rates went up Women responsibilities grew Many children went without food, lacked clothing, gave up dreams of college139 people, mostly children, died of starvation and malnutrition in 1933 in NYCParents nagged children, many teens left homes to escape parents or allow younger children more food to eat “Last Hired, First Fired”Depression particularly harmed racial minorities African Americans were last to be hired and first to be fired Black unemployment rates were more than twice the white rate Atlanta citizens paraded denouncing the hiring of blacks until every white has a jobReligious and charitable organizations often refused to care for African Americans Harlem Housewives League- 1931, women joined together to challenge NYC race-based unequal distribution of relief Hispanic Americans were even displaced in the California agricultural labor force Arizona, California and Texas banned Mexicans from public works and highway construction jobs Half a million Mexican immigrants left US Local authorities in South with Department of Labor urged MExicans to return to MexicoProtestMost Americans reacted without protest and blamed themselves Others acted to protect families
Bloodless battle of Pleasantville- 100 women in New Jersey held city council hostage to demand assistance Socialists and Communists became more popular, local officials suppressed them 4 marchers dead and others wounded in 1932 by police in Detroit Herbert Hoover and the Depression

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