ch19 - The Big Ideas-Chapter 19(Serway and Beichner Physics...

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The Big Ideas—Chapter 19 (Serway and Beichner, Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 5 th Edition) AJM:2/11/01 1 Sections 1&2 Objects in “thermal contact” exchange energy via “heat.” They cease this process when they reach “thermal equilibrium.” We find experimentally—and give as the so-called “zeroth law of thermodynamics”—that two objects that are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third object, are also in thermal equilibrium with each other . We can tell when heat is being exchanged by monitoring a so-called “thermometric property” of the objects. A “thermometric property” is one that depends on the total internal energy of the objects, like density, length, resistivity, color, etc. It can be used to make a “thermometer.” For instance, mercury thermometers exploit thermal variations in the density of mercury. The Celsius temperature scale is defined in terms of two so-called “fixed points”: One is a mixture of ice and water at atmospheric
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