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Biol1020-9.22-replication.mutation notes

Biol1020-9.22-replication.mutation notes - to fill the...

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Pre-mRNA-Before DNA transfers to RNA in cytoplasm Changes that occur: **SEE PICTURE! Exons splice together Introns leave 5’ cap and Poly-A-Tail attach to ends of polypeptide Now it’s ready to leave the nucleus!! Good genes make good proteins Bad genes make bad proteins or no proteins Mutations-a change in a strand of DNA **SEE PICTURE! Base substitution- wrong base was accidentally substituted/copied for the right base. Missense mutation-different amino acids are made (which results in an entirely different protein formed Nonsense mutation- the codon copied is a “stop” codon (UGA, UAG, UAA) and leads to an early end in the “message” Frameshift mutation-nucleotide wasn’t even put into a position so the codons shift
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Unformatted text preview: to fill the empty position (which makes different amino acids…which becomes a different protein) Mutations can be good, but they are mostly bad. DNA regulation/control: **SEE PICTURE! Structural genes: Found in bacteria Manufacture enzymes to create vitamins Repressor protein: Attaches to promoter to shut down function when enzyme is not present to be manufactured Inducer: Changes the shape of the repressor Inactivates the anticodon Repressor gene: Turns the structural gene on and off **E site, P site, and A site????...
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