Biol1020-9.18-transcription notes

Biol1020-9.18-transcription notes - DNA is an exergonic...

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DNA is an exergonic reaction. Exergonic reactions occur spontaneously What does DNA do? Linus Pauling (20 th century scientist) Won Nobel Chemistry and Nobel Peace Prize Protein Chemist Performed experiment on sickle cell anemia (a disease inherited through DNA) A child gets the same number and kind of gene from each parent as gene pairs. (example is Hemoglobin…an oxygen carrying protein:H=normal and h=abnormal) Some people gain HH from parents, others gain Hh, and others gain hh. People with hh have sickle cell anemia. Pauling put each of these gene pairs in an electrical field to see what they would do: Concluded that DNA functions by making different proteins. DNA is located in nucleus, and proteins are located in cytoplasm outside of nucleus, so how does DNA make protein outside of nucleus? RNA! RNA=ribonucleic acid Consists of nucleotides (as does DNA) Nucleotides are made up of: Sugar-slightly different from sugar in DNA
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