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1.Silicon Valley: Military Industrial Academic ComplexHow crucial was the military-industrial-academic complex to the rise of Silicon Valley?“Is war necessary for economic growth” (Vernon Ruttan)? How to assess the significance of public/military spending/coordination on technological innovation? Which story of technological innovation? Free market or entrepreneurial state? SILICON VALLEY MILITARY ROOTS: Earlier, San Francisco as site of naval research in communication also Sunnyvale Naval Air Station (1933); military and defense related demand decreased as learning curve and commercialization increased among emerging technologies-MILITARY as “ANGEL”: Lockheed Corporation in SIP (1956), NASA (1958), silicon transistors main market was Air Force avionics missile systems (50s-60s), Pentagon purchased 70% of US-mfd integrated circuits (1965), 60% of SV electronics working on Defense contracts (1966), high-tech essentially for military til (1971) Intel microprocessor-