geog 2 notes - Wed October 4 2006 o Individual one member...

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Wed October 4, 2006 o Individual – one member of one species o Population – members of one species that inhabit a given space o Metapopulation – when the population is geographically scattered because there is some barrier (i.e. building farms and cities) o Community – all the species that inhabit a defined space including different species (i.e. in a classroom, there are humans, dust mites, hair lice, etc. all included) o Autecology – focused on one population, one species o Synecology – studying the interaction between different species o Assemblage – another way to group species o Guild – can be different species, but have a common behavior and food source (i.e. different birds, but they specialize in eating hard nuts) o Ecosystem – the interacting phys ical and o Biosphere – all living life on the planet o Atomosphere – o Lisosphere – mineral matter of the planet o Hydrosphere – the gaseous cover of the planet Trophic hierarchy – flow of energy through an ecosystem o Photosynthesis – to conduct it, you need CO2 and H2O o Thousands of tiny stomata on lead surfaces allow exchange of CO2, H2O and O2 between plants and atmosphere o Light energy is transformed to sugar 6CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 12H2O C6H12O6 (sugar) + 6H2O + 602 o Respiration – o Metabolic Energy from sugar to energy while releasing co2 C6H12O6 (sugar) + 6H2O + 6O2 (oxygen) Energy + 6CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 12H2O o If the rate of photosynthesis is not > than the rate of respiration, the plant will die o Autotrophs – plants make their own food and energy by taking sunlight and turning it into sugar o Heterotroph – relies on ingestion of other organisms for energy o Stomata o Photosynthetic pathways o C3 – CO2 to 3-carbon 3-phosphoglyceric acid molecules o C4 – CO2 to two 4-carbon malic and aspartic acid molecules o CAM – CO2 absorbed at ngiht and stored as malic acid then used in C3 process during the day. Most stomatas open during the day to absorb more CO2, but they lose water, so this process tries to eliminates higher levels of water loss. (i.e. cactus) typical process for arid environment or plants attached to other plants
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o Primary producers – plants o Primary consumers – eats only plant matter; herbivore o Secondary consumer – eats the primary consumer; true carnivore o Tertiary consumer – a carnivore that eats the secondary consumer (i.e. mountain lions eat coyote) o Omnivores – eat plant and meat (i.e. humans, bears, etc)
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