18) For each of the pair of correlation coefficients provided, determine which one indicates a stronger
relation between variables:
A] -0.28 and –0.31. The second correlation coefficient (-0.31) represents a stronger negative
correlation between variables than the first correlation coefficient (-0.28).
B] 0.79 and 0.61. The first correlation coefficient (0.79) represents a stronger positive correlation
between variables than the second correlation coefficient (0.61).
C] 1.0 and –1.0. According to our textbook, the first correlation coefficient (1.0), which
represents a positive correlation, and the second correlation coefficient (-1.0) which represents a
negative correlation, are perfect correlations. In other words, neither is stronger than the other.
They both are perfect correlations.
D] -0.15 and 0.13 The first correlation coefficient (-0.15) represents a stronger negative
correlation between variables than the second correlation coefficient (0.13).
22) Calculate degrees of freedom and the critical values, or cutoffs, assuming a two-tailed test with a
level of 0.05, for each of the following designs:
A] Forty students were recruited for a study about the relation between knowledge regarding
academic integrity and values held by students, with the idea that students with less knowledge
would care less about the issue than students with greater amounts of knowledge.