58) Memory, post hoc tests, and effect size: Lou, Hendriks, and Craik (2007) were interested in whether
lists of words might be better remembered
if they were paired with either pictures or sound effects.
They asked participants to memorize lists of words under three different learning conditions. In the first
condition, participants just saw a list of nouns that they were to remember (word alone condition). In
the second condition, the words were also accompanied by a picture of the object (picture condition). In
the third condition, the words were accompanied by a sound effect matching the object (sound effect
condition). The researchers measure the proportion of words participants got correct in a later
recognition test. Fictional data from four participants produce results similar to those of the original
study. The average proportion of words recognized was M = 0.54 in the word-alone condition, M = 0.69
in the picture condition, M = 0.838 in the sound effect condition. The source table below depicts the
results of the ANOVA on the data from the four fictional participants.
A] Is it appropriate to perform post hoc comparisons on the data? Why or why not?