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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 - Introduction Announcements Info Sheet Web Site: Lab Hours Notecards Pictures A Simple Program Most simple program – Hello World Outputs “Hello, World!” to the screen public class HelloTester { public static void main(String args) { //display a greeting in the console System.out.println(“Hello, world!”); } } Questions / Outline What is a computer program? What makes a computer program work? How do you write computer programs? What does it mean to “program in Java”? What is object-oriented programming? Computer Programs Computers perform operations based on sequences of instructions A program is simply a sequence of instructions The behavior of a program is what happens when the computer executes the instructions Note: Programs may behave differently given different user input Computer Programs Sophisticated programs require teams of highly skilled programmers and other professionals Computer programs are used to make many tasks more efficient There are programs for a wide variety of tasks Flexibility arises because we program a specific task for the computer Computers A computer is a machine that can accomplish a set of basic instructions Stores data Interacts with devices Executes programs A program is a set of instructions and decisions used to carry out a task Computers Computers have come a long way, and will continue to advance – but they still maintain the basic components: CPU Storage Input and Output Devices CPU Central Processing Unit (CPU) - Brain of the computer It’s a chip made with millions of transistors Athlon, Pentium, PowerPC Executes instructions given by a program Storage Storage is where a computer stores information that helps it execute instructions 3 Major Types Primary Secondary Removable Primary Storage Random Access Memory(RAM) Fast but expensive All electronic, so it loses info when power is stopped Secondary Hard Disk Less expensive, but slow Maintains data even when the computer is turned off Removable Floppies, CD-ROMs, Zip Disks, Thumb Drives Maintain information without power, plus you can take them with you Connections Network: computers can be interconnected with each other Peripheral Devices: how computers and humans communicate Input: keyboard, mouse, iris scanner Output: speakers, screen, printer Internal Bus: The computer sends and receives data to it’s different parts via a bus (think of this as a highway) Questions Where is a program stored when it is not currently running? Which part of the computer carries out arithmetic operations, such as addition and multiplication? Programming Very simply, programming is writing a computer program While this may sound straightforward, it’s actually much more complex… From Instructions to Code A computer needs to be able to understand what instructions it needs to execute There is only one real language a computer understands: 001010100001001000100100100101010101010 However, there are many languages a program can be written in Machine Code Assembly Language High Level Languages Machine Code 0101010101010001000000111111001 The most basic level of instructions Everything is in binary (ones and zeros) Humans cannot easily read machine code, but the only language a computer can read is machine code Problems With Machine Code Very primitve Commands: Add, subtract, load from memory Leads to coding of several hundred lines to perform one simple operation Not Intuitive Can you look at machine code and tell what the program is doing? Not universal Each CPU translates different binary strings to mean different things Assembly Language add 1, R2, R3 Not used in Java Has a direct translation to machine code Slightly easier to read Still has only a small set of instructions that it can perform Takes a long time to write a big program Hard to find errors and still not universal High Level Languages sum = Math.sqrt(3) + 2 * 5; High level languages are much more understandable and expressive One statement is converted into several machine code instructions The conversion is done by the compiler Compiler: High-Level to Assembly Assembler: Assembly to Machine Code The Java Programming Language Simple – easy to understand Safe – more secure, less error-prone Platform-Independent - "write once, run anywhere") Rich Library – lots of tasks are already accomplished for you Designed with the internet in mind Java Virtual Machine Unique to Java Instead of compiling on processor, Java compiles to a virtual processor that is the same for every computer Lesson: The code is the same no matter what computer you are on, so you don’t have to make a Mac version and a PC version, etc. Flaws Simple programs takes a little more effort than with C++ and other languages Many revisions made – make sure you update if you work from home to Java 5.0+ Rich libraries Lots to learn Programming Tools There are many tools available for programming in two categories: Editor & Compiler Pair Integrated Development Environment (IDE) We will be using the Eclipse IDE Originally developed by IBM Now an open-source project Free & available for many platforms Programming Tips Become familiar with the environment you’ll be using Organize your files in a logical manner Save and backup your work often You only need to backup source files Know which copy of your program you’re working on Writing a Simple Program Recall our simple program: public class HelloTester { public static void main(String args) { //display a greeting in the console window System.out.println(“Hello, world!”); } } Prints “Hello, world!” to the screen Simple Program What does each line mean? Class Declaration Method Declaration Method Body Comments Program Statements Class Declaration public class HelloTester A class is an essential part of a Java program – all instructions are contained within a class Every program contains one or more classes Important: If we create a class named HelloTester, the filename must be (case-sensitive!) Method Declaration public static void main(String args) { } Classes contains both data and methods Methods are sequences of instructions For example, a Robot class might contain methods for walking, talking, and grabbing Every program must have a method called main A program always starts by executing the sequence of instructions in the main method Method Declaration public static void main(String args) { } String args is a parameter of the main method, meaning it is data the method is given as input public and static are modifiers that describe what kind of method main is void is the return type of the method Method Body //display a greeting in the console window System.out.println(“Hello, world!”); Contains the sequence of instructions that the method should execute Also contains comments which are descriptions of what a line or a sequence of lines is trying to accomplish Each instruction ends in a semi-colon (;), but comments do not have such restrictions Comments //display a greeting in the console window “//” signifies not to execute this line of code Anything written after “//” is ignored The main purpose of comments is to explain code to anyone reading your code (including yourself!) Other varieties of comments: /* Anything in here is ignored */ /** Anything in here is ignored, but can be used for automatic documentation */ Sequence of Instructions System.out.println(“Hello, world!”); The only thing we are trying to do is print “Hello, world!” to the screen This takes only one instruction – usually we have many more The type of instruction is a method call on an object Notes Java is case-sensitive Cannot call the method Main instead of main Cannot call system.out.println() instead of System.out.println() Java is free form – the amount of white space is irrelevant to the computer (although it is important for readability) You could have all instructions on one line… Programming Errors Two types of errors Syntax Errors = compile-time errors These are caught when you ask Java to convert your program to machine code Your program must follow a set of rules called a grammar (just like a sentence in English) Logic Errors = run-time errors Not problems in the syntax, but problems in logic Program does not accomplish what the programmer intended Programming & Compiling The sequence of instructions that a programmer writes is called source code Saved as a .java file A compiler takes source code and creates machine code Saved by compiler as .class file Java combines previously written code (libraries) with the source code when it runs the program From Editing to Executing Create source code (.java files) Compiler converts source code to machine code (.class files) Class files are integrated with library files (files that define a set of useful classes) To run the program, JVM combines class files with library files and runs the program Edit-Compile-Test Edit: Write or revise your source code Compile: Run the compiler program to translate source code to machine code If there are syntax errors, go back and edit Test: Run your program, see if it works, and try to break If there are logic errors, go back and edit Object Oriented Programming This is an introduction to programming with Java It is not simply a course in Java syntax One of the big selling points of Java is the fact that it is object-oriented We will cover the concepts of OOP later, but it is helpful to have some background of this paradigm earlier What is Object Oriented Programming? It is an evolutionary form of modular programming with more formal rules that allow pieces of software to be reused and interchanged between programs. A style of computer programming which entails building of independent pieces of code which interact with each other. What are the advantages to OOP? Cohesive Efficient Clearer Objects and Classes Analogy: class : object as blueprint : house Objects simply represent an entity Think of objects as nouns (eg a robot) Objects have data (eg name=Fred) and methods (eg moveRight(), turnLeft() ) To use objects, simply call the method on the object: robot.moveRight(); robot.getName(); Objects and Classes Classes are blueprints to build objects They are a template/mold for an object, but they aren’t the actual objects They define what objects know (eg their name) and what they can do (eg moveRight) Just like you can’t water the front lawn of a blueprint, you can’t accomplish anything with a class You use classes to build objects Methods Each method call executes the code in that method (it’s a mini-program) You can call methods on objects Methods may do different things for different objects You can only call methods that are defined by the class on the object ...
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