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RHCh10 - Myers’ EXPL ORIN G PS YC HOLOGY(7th Ed Chapter...

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Myers’ EXPL ORIN G PS YC HOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 10 Motivation James A. McCubbin, PhD Aneeq Ahmad, Ph.D. Clemson University (Modified by Ray Hawkins, Ph.D.) Worth Publishers
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Motivation Motivational Concepts Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology Drives and Incentives Optimum Arousal A Hierarchy of Motives
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Motivation Hunger The Physiology of Hunger The Psychology of Hunger Obesity and Weight Control
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Motivation Sexual Motivation The Physiology of Sex The Psychology of Sex Adolescent Sexuality Sexual Orientation Sex and Human Values
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Motivation The Need to Belong Achievement Motivation Identifying Achievement Motivation Sources of Achievement Motivation
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Motivation Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal. Aron Ralston was motivated to cut his arm in order to free himself from a rock that pinned him down. Aron Ralston AP Photo/ Rocky Mountain News, Judy Walgren
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Perspectives on Motivation Four perspectives used to explain motivation include the following: 1. Instinct Theory (replaced by the evolutionary perspective) 2. Drive-Reduction Theory 3. Arousal Theory 4. Hierarchy of Motives Film
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Instincts & Evolutionary Psychology Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned (Tinbergen, 1951). Where the woman builds different kinds of houses the bird builds only one kind of nest. © Ariel Skelley/ Masterfile Tony Brandenburg/ Bruce Coleman, Inc.
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Imprinting (Tinbergen, 1951) 12.03
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Drives and Incentives When the instinct theory of motivation failed, it was replaced by the drive-reduction theory. A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
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Incentive Where our needs push, incentives (positive or negative stimuli) pull us in reducing our drives. A food-deprived person who smells baking bread (incentive) feels a strong hunger drive. Film
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Optimum Arousal Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it. Young monkeys and children are known to explore the environment in the absence of a need-based drive. Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Randy Faris/ Corbis
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Yerkes-Dodson Law
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Novelty and arousal
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A Hierarchy of Motives Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that certain needs have priority over others. Physiological needs like breathing, thirst, and hunger come before psychological needs such as achievement, self- esteem, and the need for recognition. (1908-1970)
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Hierarchy of Needs Hurricane Survivors Menahem Kahana/ AFP/ Getty Images Mario Tama/ Getty Images David Portnoy/ Getty Images for Stern Joe Skipper/ Reuters/ Corbis
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Hunger When are we hungry? When do we eat? When there is no food in our stomach.
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