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Lecture3 - Research Methods Lecture 3 The Research Process...

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Unformatted text preview: Research Methods Lecture 3, 1/28/04 The Research Process In action The Research Process 1st step = 2nd step: form specific testable prediction Woah, I could tell a lot about that guy from his room Personality is revealed in living spaces Idea Generation Personal Living Spaces (PLS) are rich with information about personality, values, abilities, and lifestyle H1: People’s dispositions are revealed in their behavioral residues H2: Observers use information in PLS to form impressions about people How are dispositions revealed in a person’s living space? Disposition Conscientiousness Manifest Behavior Tidying Up Belongings Residue of Behavior Neat Living Space Values & Attitudes e.g., Politically Liberal Displaying Political Icons Poster of Malcolm X Sentimental Collecting Memorabilia Pebble From Favorite Beach How Will We Find Out? Psychological Measurements Self-Report* – Ask people to describe their own thoughts, feelings, or behavior. Behavioral Observation* – Firsthand observation of a subject’s behavior. Archival Records* – Investigate existing records of past behavior. *Problems? Operational Definitions Define variables in terms of procedures needed to control and measure it ___________ as measured by ______________ People’s dispositions as measured by ______ Judgments as measured by _________ Personality** I see myself as someone who is… Extraverted Outgoing, animated, sociable, assertive Agreeable Helpful, cooperative, pleasant Conscientious Self-discipline, duty, order Emotionally Stable Anxiety, depression, moodiness, vulnerability Open to new experiences Intellect, imagination, curiosity, creativity Well-organized Neat Organized clothing Relatively empty Organized CDs Organized books r = stationary Organized .81 Clean Inviting Comfortable Good condition Cheerful Colorful Conscientiousness Judge-Reported Conscientiousness Uncluttered r = Correlation Can observers accurately judge conscientiousness from living spaces? +1 = the more conscientious people said they were, the more their rooms were rated as conscientious. -1 = the more conscientious people said they were, the less their rooms were rated as conscientious. 0 = no relation at all .81 --- yes, observers can accurately judge conscientiousness from living spaces The Research Process What to do? Descriptive research Causal Research – – – Central Tendency Variability Correlation Coefficient – >2 groups: experimental & control – Independent & Dependent variables – Random assignment Descriptive: Who are you? Music: – Rap/Hip-hop TV – Sports Drink – Bottled water Spend time – Cooking, eating restaurants, praying, working out Spend Money – Books, fast-food, car, groceries, clothes, nightlife General – Laughing, upset stomach, joint pain, flirting Number of People Hip-hop Histogram Mean: 5.2 Median: 6 Central Tendency Mode: 6 Range: 2-6 Standard Deviation: 1.17 When (never - w/in 24hrs) Variability Upset stomach Histogram Number of People Mean: 4.1 Median: 4 Central Tendency Mode: 4 Range: 1-6 Standard Deviation: 1.32 Variability When (never - w/in 24hrs) How variables relate to each other Why do you have upset stomachs so often? Why do you have upset stomachs so often? • Nervous about start of school? (insomnia, praying, playing computer games) • Partying too much? (drinking, clubbing) • Food poisoning? (trying new foods, diarrhea) • Life anxiety? (fighting with friends, homesick) • Sick in general? (prescriptions, headache, backache) What’s related to upset stomachs? Activity Correlation Drinking wine .49 Drinking beer .50 Dancing/clubbing .50 Prescriptions .76 Wearing formal clothes .17 Telling big lie .27 Trying new foods .60 Insomnia .50 Correlation does not prove causation What’s the Cause? New theory… Control and comparison – Independent variable- “cause” – Dependent variable- “effect” Randomly assign groups – Experimental – Control Anxiety causes hunger DV = Hunger as measured by ___ – self report: – Objective: IV = Anxiety – Manipulation: – Control: Random assignment – Experimental – Control Analysis Experimenter Expectancy Pygmalion in the classroom “Harvard Test of General Ability” – Predicts “academic blooming” or “spurting” 18 teachers given lists of “top 20%” – Randomly Assigned End of year re-test (TOGA) – I.Q. Change? – What happened to scores of alleged “bloomers”? I.Q. Score Gains 16 14 12 10 Control "Bloomers" 8 6 4 2 0 Grades 1-6 Concluding Discussion Do you agree psychology is the scientific study of behavior and the mind? What are some problems with psychological research? – Are white, freshman in college generalizable? – Animals vs. Humans? ...
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