Lecture15 - Develo pm ent Lecture 15 4/5/04 Pla n...

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Unformatted text preview: Develo pm ent Lecture 15 4/5/04 Pla n Attachment & bonding Familiarity--Lorenz Comfort-- Harlow Responsiveness to needs- Attachment styles Cognitive Development Piaget’s stages Imp rin ting Any moving, honking stimulus Decoys, rubber balls, wooden blocks, striped metal pipe Critical period ~ within first day... In humans, attachment is less automatic, mother plays more active role What i s a tta chment? A strong, innate emotional connection persisting over time and circumstances Attachment = adaptive Infant attachment behaviors motivate adult attention Infants exhibiting attachment behaviors have a higher chance of survival Re member Watso n? Dangers of too much mother love Treat children like young adults; objectively, not sentimentally; never hug or kiss– shake their hands Love is conditioned, not instinctive Hunger need // love Food – salivation; food + bell – salivation; bell… Food – good feeling; mother + food– good feeling; Mother -- love Contact Comfort: A theory of love Ha rlo w Strength of attachment is independent of feeding… Love is conditioned, BUT, UR isn’t food, it’s pleasant, tactile stimulation Monkey experiments 1. Influence of nursing vs. contact comfort 2. Fear response 3. Exploration 4. Separation http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/class/Psy301/Niederhoffer/movies/Development/Harl ow_interview_pt1.mpg Harlow’s Contact Comfort Theory Harlow’s monkey studies Surrogate mothers Wire mesh “mother” Terrycloth “mother” Measures of “affection” Time spent Preference in time of stress “Contact” need is important in determining behavior, esp. in bonding http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/class/Psy301/Nieder hoffer/movies/Development/Harlow's_monkeys.mov Monkeys f ed by cloth mothers 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Time spent with cloth mother Time spent with wire mother 5 25 85 120 160 Mo nk eys fed by wir e mot her s 18 16 14 12 Time spent with cloth mother Time spent with wire mother 10 8 6 4 2 0 5 25 85 120 160 Do infants form attachment to source of food? 1. Ate same amount, gained weight same rate, but: • Wire mothered-monkeys didn’t digest milk 2. When frightened ran to cloth mother • Regardless of whom provided food • http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/class/P sy301/Niederhoffer/movies/Development/Harlow_int erview_pt3.mpg Do infants form attachment to source of food? 3. Open field experiments • • • Cloth: Rushed to cloth monkeys, clutched, rubbed W/out mother: Froze w/ fear, cried, thumb-sucking, crouching Wire: Same as no mother • http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/class/Psy301/Niederhoffer/movies/Development/Harlow_interview_pt2.mpg 4. Separation • When reunited with cloth, rushed to mother, climbed, clutched tightly played • • No exploration b/c need for contact comfort =greater When reunited with wire… Future Be havi or Abnormal behavior from wire-mom raised: Sit and stare like autistic child Sexually disturbed… 18 females mated voluntarily 18 females involuntarily (held in place) Of 36, 20 produced infants Most males never able to mate Of 20 who produced infants: 5 showed adequate, but awkward behavior 7 Indifferent (failed to nurse) 8 Abusive- extreme physical cruelty 4 killed their babies (bit off fingers and toes) No te! Of 20, only 5 showed adequate behavior! Also important: peer contact Of adequates: all had peer exposure Of indifferent & abusive, only 3 had peers Peers are perhaps more important than tactile stimuli for determining later behavior… Human Att achment St yle s John Bo wlb y (1 969) Clear sequence of 3 emotional reactions upon separation (across species) Protest Despair Detachment Specific emotions & behaviors designed to keep infants near primary caregivers EVOLUTIONARY SELECTED Th e St range Situatio n Mary Ainsworth, 1978 Parent brings baby to unfamiliar playroom Parent and stranger come & go (scripted) Child’s behavior observed in secret How do they react to separations & reunions? Explore while “secure base” is there? Distress upon departure? Delight upon return? Se cure At tachme nt About 60% of children in normal conditions Secure base for exploration Safe Haven when distressed Avoidant Attachment About 25% of children Don’t use parent as secure base Don’t use parent as safe haven Anxious-Ambivalent Attachment About 15% of children Ineffective secure base (clinging, nervous) Ineffective safe haven (emotional acting out, suspicious) Me nta l Mo dels Secure: Selves as friendly, good-natured, likable; Others as well-intentioned, reliable & trustworthy Avoidant: Selves as suspicious, aloof & skeptical; Others as unreliable, over-eager to commit Anxious: Selves as misunderstood, unconfident, underappreciated; Others as Unreliable, unwilling/ unable to commit to permanent relationship Consequences of secure attachment in adulthood More trusting in relationships Longer relationships More sexual satisfaction, esp. with long-term partner Higher self-esteem and regard for others Seek social support when under stress Appropriate self-disclosure style Positive, optimistic, constructive interactions with others Better a positive mood self-induction Chemical basis of attachment Oxytocin Hormone related to affiliative behaviors, including infant-caregiver attachment Promotes maternal behaviors that help ensure survival of infant Strengthens social memories Co gnitive Deve lo pment Children are curious, active, constructive thinkers who want to understand world around them Children form schemas = mental representations of the world Assimilation- fit new info into schema Accomodation- adjust schema to fit new info Pia get’s st ages of cognitive d eve lo pment Visual Preferences in Newborns Patterns vs. solids Drawing of a human face Preference for complexity vs. adaptation? Newborn Orientation to the Face Infants shown blank shape, face, or scrambled facial features. same complexity… Infants looked more intensely at the actual face. 1. Sensorimotor stage Understands self as agent of action Object permanence Understanding that an object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen 2. Preoperational stage Beginning of symbolic thinking-- words Still egocentric & can’t yet think “operationally” Imagining logical consequences Testing Conservation Ability to conserve marks transition from Preoperational to concrete operational stage Pia get’s st ages 3. Concrete operational stage Learn to think about operations Develop conservation Based on understanding the operation of reversibility 4. Formal operational stage Develop abstract reasoning Hypothetic-deductive reasoning Ability to form and test hypotheses Sensi ti vi ty to Number ? Can Infants Add and Subtract? “Illustration of addition or subtraction” Correct vs. incorrect outcome (2-1=2, for example) Infant looks longer at incorrect outcomes Infants a re remark able … Adolescence and adulthood bring about fascinating capacities more easily studied… SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IS ON THE HORIZON ...
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