Lecture13 - Food, Dieting, & Body Image Lecture 13...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Food, Dieting, & Body Image Lecture 13 3/22/04 Clueless Clip Why study eating and dieting? 60% of Americans surveyed would like to lose weight 1 out of every 3 Americans is on a diet Americans spend ~$50 billion/year on weight loss including low calorie foods and beverages 9 out of 10 formerly obese people would rather have a leg amputated than be obese again Eating: What Motivates it? Biology Neural Structures Psychology Rumblings of Early Theories Cannon & Washburn (1912) Hunger at the height of contractions BUT, removed stomachs & amnesics Glucose Thermostat Leptin Recently discovered hormone produced by ob gene Involved in fat regulation Acts on hypothalamus to inhibit eating Genetic deficiency can lead to obesity Why else might we eat? Taste, smell, vision, conditioning… Sweetness Mood (good, bad, stress) Fatty foods (taste, smell, texture) Variety Time of day Presence of others “feminine” Even rats regulate their weight poorly when given access to a variety of high calorie foods Neural processing in eating Hypothalamus: most influential brain structure 1939: Tumors can cause massive obesity Lesions to ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) To Lateral hypothalamus Aphagia: dramatic reduction in eating Orbitofrontal cortex Hyperphagia: excessive eating Processes taste cues in hungry animals AND, Gourmand syndrome… Gourmand Syndrome Damage to right frontal lobe and limbic system Obsessed with fine food and food preparation 1st case, 1989 “ From political settings to table settings ” Health Conscious and… Obesity 33%, 2002 25% vs. 18% body fat [NOTE: these are averages for women and men] Body Mass Index (BMI) >29 Meanwhile… Biological effects: diabetes, h. disease, respiratory, arthritis, depression, sleep apnea, cancer, DEATH Social effects: Stigma (slow, lazy, sloppy, no willpower) & made less money, less likely to be married Same Person, Same Story Professional actors interview for job SAME lines, intonation, gestures Normal weight vs. Overweight (theatrical prosthesis) P’s read job description, resume, then viewed videotaped interviews Perceived more negatively (Non-productive, indecisive, unattractive, incompetent) Less likely to be hired Genes (can) & Environment (will) 1,000 extra calories/day, 100 days Identical twins: Some gained, some didn’t (4.3-13.3kg)! BUT… 60-80% heritability estimates for BMI No difference between raised together and raised apart Danish adoption study BMI strongly related to biological parents BMI unrelated to adoptive parents Another Irony With expanding waistlines, increasing idealization of thin and fit look What shapes our ideal weight? CULTURE: Jean Kilbourne How do we know what to look like? Average Barbie Store Height 5' 4" 6' 0" 6' 0" Weight 145 101 NA Bust 36.5 39 34 Dress 11-14 4 6 Waist 30 19 23 Hips 41 33 34 Distorted body perceptions What are the effects of reading Cosmo, Glamour, Vogue…? Magazines promote thinness and associate attractiveness with body weight Models are underweight (87% vs. 11%) Feature products and articles about getting thin Body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem, guilt, shame, anxiety, depression, eating disorders… Stice (2001): In a natural environment, 219 girls (13-17) 15 month subscription to Seventeen Put this swimsuit on… “Consumer choice study” How were their scores? 6 5 4 Sweater Swimsuit 3 2 1 0 MEN WOMEN Eating Disorders Anorexia Excessive fear of becoming fat, refuse to eat ~1% of female adolescents Despite severe emaciation, still believe not thin enough 15-20% eventually die Eating Disorders II Bulimia Marked by cycles of extreme binge eating followed by self-induced vomiting ~4% of college-aged women Believe eating is out of control, excessive worry about weight Secretly compensate via vomiting, exercise, laxatives ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 08/12/2008 for the course PSY 301 taught by Professor Pennebaker during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online