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Unformatted text preview: Memory II: Not remembering
3/1/04 Mr. Short Term Memory Think H.M.
• Bilateral medial temporal lobe resection • Anterograde amnesia New info goes in one ear, out the next • Storing is different from encoding Knows name, hometown, but… Plan: Errors in Memory Sins of forgetting, distortion, and suggestibility (false memory) Ways to improve memory How’s your memory? 7 Sins of (normal) Memory
Absentmindedness Transience Blocking Misattribution Suggestibility Bias Persistence Can occur at any stage • Encoding • Storage • Retrieval Which is the real deal? Tatiana Cooley “I’m incredibly absentminded… I live by post-its” 99 photos w/names
• • • 15 minutes Same photos, different order 85 correct! Also: strings of 4,000 numbers, 500 words, lines of poetry and deck of cards “Visualization & association” The Name Game http://www.pbs.org/saf/1102/features/nam e_game.htm Absentmindedness Much of what we sense, we never notice
• Change blindness (even while in our presence) Encoding failures
• Lack of attention OR, • Don’t process well enough for consolidation Ineffective encoding
• Imagine reading aloud to yourself while distracted… Consolidation Changes in strength of neural connxns Originally, Lashley & “Engram”
• Rats in maze, more area removed, worse memory
No specific location Equipotentiality Wrong, wrong, wrong Specialization: “Bark” sound vs. “Dog” picture Structure: Blackcapped chickadees with vs. Monkeys w/out. Neurochem– epinephrine (stress) & glucose
• • • 22 seniors: Country Time vs. Crystal Light 36 teenagers: normally 8%, unless glucose Breakfast before tests… Transience: decay over time Competing information displaces information attempting to retrieve Interference
• Sleep study, 1924: 1, 2, 4, 8 hours Not as much decay as interference, inhibition, obliteration of old by new • Proactive already known intf’s with new • Retroactive new material intf’s with old Stanford President: fish & names Memory as Reconstructive Filling in missing pieces Disadvantages of schemas
• • Office Study Confidence & accuracy NOT well correlated (sleep list, 2 voices, remember vs. know) • Memories for early events = reconstructions Misinformation Effect
False/ misleading information given after eyewitness event incorporated into account of event Loftus & Palmer (1974) • How fast was the car going when it… • Did you see any broken glass…
Hit 14% Smashed 32% Contacted 31.8 Smashed 40.8 Experiment 1 Film of 5car chainreaction accident
• Accident = 4 seconds Driver runs stop sign into oncoming traffic 10 questions • How fast was Car A going when it ran the stop sign? • How fast was Car A going when it turned right? 10. Did you see a stop sign for Car A? (53% vs. 35% Experiment 2 After short video:
• How fast was white car going when it passed the barn while traveling along the country road? • How fast was the white car going while traveling along the country road? 1 week later
• • Did you see a barn? 17% vs. 2% said “Yes” Experiment 3
Did you see a truck in the beginning of the film? 0% At the beginning of the film, was the truck parked beside the car? 22% ACCURACY is VERY important Tell me about the time you got a hand caught in a mousetrap and had to have the trap removed at the hospital? Commercial… “My brother Colin was trying to get Blowtorch from me and I wouldn’t let him take it from me, so he pushed me into the wood pile where the mouse trap was. And then my finger got caught in it. And then we went to the hospital, and my mommy , daddy and Colin drove me there, to the hospital in our can, because it was far away, and the doctor put a bandage on this finger” False Memory Implantation Present 4 childhood events 3 provided by parents as true Describe all 4 events • 1 created by experimenter, verified as false 29% adults recall being lost in mall 2030% hospitalized with ear infection, spilling punch at wedding, evacuating store with activated sprinklers, releasing parking brake & rolling into object Case study* *
164 Remembered feeling frightened Described store was lost in Recalled scolding when found Remembered looks of man who found him (blue flannel, glasses, old, bald) Clarity rated at top of scale Chose true experience as false Application Eyewitness Testimony (see clip) How to improve your memory How to Improve Memory: Mnemonics Increase Practice Time
• More time spent studying, better • Remember more from 4 2hrs than 18hr Increase the Depth of Processing
• Think actively and deeply (how is it linked? Ask, think ,talk) Hierarchical Organization
• Outline: Broad categories, subcategories How to Improve Memory: Mnemonics Method of Loci
• Mentally place in familiar locations. Memorize familiar route, then place visual images. PegWord Method
• List of words = “pegs”; Hang items on pegs; imagine interaction Minimize Interference
• Study before sleeping; review all material right before exam Utilize Context Effects
• Setting, mood, time, smell, etc. Imagery & Mnemonics One is a bun Two is a shoe Three is a tree Four is a door Five is a hive Six is sticks Seven is heaven Eight is a gate Nine is a line Ten is a hen PTSD Persistence of unwanted memories Film clip ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/12/2008 for the course PSY 301 taught by Professor Pennebaker during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas.
- Spring '07