GEOG 1010 Exam 1 Review - Introduction to Physical Geology...

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Introduction to Physical Geology Review sheet and concept summary, part I February 2008 I. Overview of geology and geologic time (T&L chapters 1 and 2) a. Oceans and continents i. Key differences between them ii. Role of crustal density and thickness b. Plate tectonics i. What is it? ii. What drives plate motion? iii. Name and describe the 3 types of plate boundary, and know some examples of where these occur on earth iv. Evidence for continental drift c. Geologic time i. What is the age of the earth, and how do we know it? d. Concept of the rock cycle II. Matter and minerals (T&L, chapter 3) a. Isotopes vary in atomic mass; some are stable, others decay (radioisotopes) b. Mineral vs. rock c. Basic chemical structure of the earth (core, mantle, crust; continental vs. oceanic crust) d. Basic physical structure of the earth (inner vs. outer core, lithosphere vs. asthenosphere) e. Common minerals and mineral groups, including silicates (light and dark), carbonates, evaporites f. Minerals vary in: hardness, density, chemical stability, and melting point III. Igneous rocks (T&L chapter 4) a. Volcanic (extrusive) vs. plutonic (intrusive) b. What is magma? c. Texture of igneous rock and what it reveals about conditions of formation d. Variation in mineral composition e. Viscosity: what it is, and why/how magma viscosity varies f. Felsic vs. mafic g. Concept of partial melting h. How magma is generated, and which mechanism is likely to be dominant in different settings (e.g., hot spot, mid-ocean ridge, subduction zone) i. Main types of igneous rocks, and what they tell you about environment of formation IV. Volcanoes (T&L chapter 5) a. Why do they vary in eruptive style? b. Where do most occur?
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c. Three main types of volcanic landform (and why they differ) d. Volcanic hazards, including pyroclastic flows (nueés ardentes) and lahars (in what kinds of environment would you be most worried about them?) e. Concept of recurrence interval and how one can estimate it from a past sequence of events f. Link between plate tectonic setting, magma composition, eruptive style, and volcanic landforms V. Sedimentary rocks (T&L chapter 7) a. Main categories of sedimentary rocks b. Understand that sedimentary rocks form where sediment accumulates, that
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