050316INCAE-e - The Central America Free Trade Agreement...

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Unformatted text preview: The Central America Free Trade Agreement with the United States (CAFTA): Negotiations and Outcomes Dr. Arturo Condo Dean of Innovation and Institutional Development AGENDA Central America today CAFTA & Central America Negotiation of CAFTA Outcomes of CAFTA Issues around CAFTA Conclusions 2 Copyright 2005 - INCAE AGENDA Central America today CAFTA & Central America Negotiation of CAFTA Outcomes of CAFTA Issues around CAFTA Conclusions 3 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Central America: A natural bridge to the world Central America is a geographic, logistic, economic, and cultural bridge between major countries and regions. Because of its geographic position, Central America is a natural bridge between North and South America, and between Pacific and Atlantic Oceans 4 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Central America Today Population 35 million Area 500,000 Km2 2004 GDP US$70 bn Per capita GDP PPP US$4,420 Honduras Guatemala GDP growth 3.1% El Salvador Nicaragua Foreign capital net inflow US$ 2.3bn US$ 19.7 bn of Exports + US$ 6.0 bn in Tourism and Remittances US$ 28.8 bn of Imports 35% of Intra-regional trade US$ 10.3 bn Stock of FDI (1997-2003) Source: Central Banks 5 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Costa Rica Main exports from Central America PRODUCT Accessories of computers & office machines Bananas and plantains, fresh or dried Coffee Electro-medical apparatus (electro-cardiographs, infra-red ray apparatus, syringes, dental) Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in solid form Medicament mixtures Dates, figs, pineapples, mangoes, avocadoes, guavas Food preparations Crude petroleum oils Women's slips, panties, bathrobes etc. Crustaceans Value 2002 US$ Thousand 898,903 840,722 788,944 355,293 345,436 286,318 178,293 160,171 149,382 130,253 123,354 Average Growth 1998-2002 (%) -1 -5 -21 55 -4 9 4 11 23 12 -22 6 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Foreign direct investment in Central America 3000 2500 U S $ M illion 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1997 404 59 84 128 173 848 1998 608 1,103 673 99 184 2,667 1999 612 162 155 237 300 1,466 2000 400 178 230 282 267 1,357 2001 445 260 456 195 150 1,506 2002 628 234 110 143 204 1,319 2003 466 139 104 216 241 1,166 Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua Total 7 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Central America is an open region Exports + Imports / GDP (%) Central America Latin America United States World Average Tariffs 1987 Costa Rica El Salvador Honduras Guatemala Nicaragua 40 35 37 39 42 2003 7 7 7 7 5 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Source: World Development Indicators, and SIECA 8 Copyright 2005 - INCAE FTAs in Central American countries Central America Economic Integration Agreement FTA CA3 and Mexico Agreement Guatemala-Cuba FTA Guatemala and Panama Canada Panama Colombia Venezuela Chile Guatemala Andean Community Free Trade and Investment Agreement between Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala CA3 and Mexico. Mexico FTA CA4 and Canada Honduras El Salvador Mexico Chile Dominican Republic Panama Central America Northern Triangle Canada Mexico Dominican Republic Chile Canada Trinidad & Tobago Panama Investment Agreement with: Nicaragua Albania, Germany, Argentina, Austria, Bulgaria, Denmark, Spain, USA, France, Honduras, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Norway, Poland, South Korea, Rumania and Costa Rica Taiwan 9 Copyright 2005 - INCAE FTAs in Central America Caribbean Basin Initiative CBI Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA) Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) Central American Customs Union Central America and Chile Central America and Panama General Agreement for CA Integration Central America and Dominican Republic CAFTA (To be ratified) WTO (Under negotiations) EU (Expected for 2006) 10 Copyright 2005 - INCAE A Central American platform for trade and investment Regional projects: Roads, ports and airports infrastructure and logistics modernization Customs Integration Electricity markets integration Global companies expanding investments and operations: Intel Procter & Gamble France Telecom Holcim Heineken Sakata Seed Investment opportunities Telecommunications Energy High-tech Industries Financial services Distribution (wholesaling, franchising) and transport services Tourism Construction and engineering services Software development Agribusiness and Forestry 11 US$11.3 Billion of FDI in 1997-2003 Regional integration Mexico, Chile and Caribbean and FTAs with several countries Perspectives on the Free Trade Area of the Americas and a FTA with the European Union Copyright 2005 - INCAE Sectors with high potential for FDI attraction and exports Honduras Guatemala El Salvador Nicaragua Costa Rica Tourism Agribusiness Forestry Fishing and Aquaculture Dairy Products Manufacturing and Light Assembly Textiles and Apparel Energy Telecom High Tech Software Call Centers Medical Devices Plastic Products Chemicals Pharmaceutical Source: CLACDS research 12 Copyright 2005 - INCAE AGENDA Central America today CAFTA & Central America Negotiation of CAFTA Outcomes of CAFTA Issues around CAFTA Conclusions 13 Copyright 2005 - INCAE CAFTA & Central America CAFTA: US and CA5 - El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The agreement is expected to be ratified in year 2005 and entry into force in year 2006 Almost 50 per cent of the region's international trade (exports and imports) is made with United States The stock of U.S. FDI in the region amounts US$3 billion In year 2003, the region exported more than US$12 billion to the US market Nearly 100 per cent of all consumer and industrial products made in Central America will enter the U.S. market duty-free immediately on ratification of the agreement 14 Copyright 2005 - INCAE CAFTA & Central America CAFTA will require the Central American countries to undertake reforms to improve its performance in critical competitiveness areas: customs integration and administration, protection of intellectual property rights, access and protection of investments on utilities (energy, telecommunications, water), construction, insurance and financial services markets, sanitary and phytosanitary standards and certification schemes "Agreement-pushed" reforms and policy changes would create a better investment climate for US companies and at the same time generate positive externalities for other foreign firms interested on investing in the region 15 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Trade between the U.S. and Central America Exports of CA to the U.S. US$12 billion 1% of total U.S. imports 55% of total CA exports Textiles and Apparel Fruits Electrical Mach & Equip Coffee Medical Devices US$ 7bn US$ 1bn US$ 975m US$ 446m US$ 426m U.S. FDI Stock in CA US$3 Billion Imports of CA from the U.S. US$11 billion 1.4% of total U.S. exports 43% of total CA imports Textiles and Apparel Electrical Mach & Equip Machinery & mechan. Mineral fuels & prods Plastics Cereals US$ 2.0bn US$ 1.7bn US$ 993m US$ 698m US$ 573m US$ 447m CBI / CBTPA Source: USITC 16 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Tariffs and sensitive products Average Tariffs (%) Average nominal external tariff Capital goods Inputs Intermediate Goods Final Goods Most Protected Industries (%) Diary products Corn (yellow) Rice Sugar Pork meat Chicken meat 15 5-35 32 20 15 15 40 0 40 40 40 20 20 20 35 40 15 50 40 0-30 62 55 15 170 65 1 35 50 48 150 Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica 7.1 0 0 5 10 15 6.9 0 0 5 -10 15 7.1 1 1 5 10 15 5.1 0 0 5 15 7.1 0 0 5 - 10 15 17 Copyright 2005 - INCAE AGENDA Central America today CAFTA & Central America Negotiation of CAFTA Outcomes of CAFTA Issues around CAFTA Conclusions 18 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Negotiation mechanisms All parties were subject to "the same set of obligations and commitments," but with each country defining its own schedules (sensitive products) for market access on a bilateral basis Each country's position was first determined at an internal level, establishing the margin for negotiation in each of the different sectors Finally, a Central American position was presented at each trade negotiation round It was not possible to end the negotiation process with a joint Central American negotiating position, since the consensus-approach was suspended by the fourth round Costa Rica negotiated longer, and obtained a slightly different agreement than the other four Central American countries, each of which also negotiated separate market access schedules 19 Copyright 2005 - INCAE CAFTA Negotiation Rounds First Round, Costa Rica, January 2003 Public sector procurement, intellectual property, market access, investment services, dispute settlement, institutional arrangements, environment and labor Basically served for negotiating teams to get to know each other Second Round, Ohio, February 2003 Phytosanitary measures, rules of origin, textiles, and customs regulations. Electronic commerce and investment chapters. Proposal for intellectual property rights, government procurement, and dispute settlement process. Creation of a Small Enterprise Development Center. Third Round, El Salvador, March-April 2003 Government procurement, market access, labor and the environment. Textiles, intellectual property rights, dispute settlement, investment and services, telecommunications, electronic commerce and agriculture The tactic was to leave the "hardest" topics for last (rules of origin) 20 Copyright 2005 - INCAE CAFTA Negotiation Rounds Fourth Round, Guatemala, May 2003 Guatemala offered immediate duty-free access to 93 percent of the incoming products from the United States Drafts for all chapters under negotiation were available but no substantial progress was reached Fifth Round, Honduras, June 2003 Further disintegration in the Central American negotiating position Costa Rica was the country most interested in defending its sensitive sectors Sixth Round, New Orleans, July-August 2003 Labor and evironmental legislation and enforcement, disputte settlement mechanims Electronic commerce and customs procedures chapters concluded. Chapters on investment and government procurement were 90% complete. Significant progress in the Specific Rules of Origin for agricultural products, and the schedules for tariff reductions Seventh Round, Nicaragua, September 2003 Labor and environment chapters closed. Only one schedule for tariff reductions was established, that protects sensitive products for 15 years. Rules of origin and preferential access quotas (TPAs) for textiles discussed 21 Copyright 2005 - INCAE CAFTA Negotiation Rounds Eight Round, Texas, October 2003 Investment chapter concluded. Consolidation of agricultural benefits under CBTPA. Discussion on sensitive products, and sugar quotas Nifth Round, Washington, Decemeber 2003 All chapters closed. Costa Rica was not happy with the results achieved at that date Ninth Round (OT), Washington, January 2004 Costa Rica U.S. Details over state-run insurance and telecommunications sectors opening process, the treatment of certain sensitive agricultural products and duty-free treatment of apparel products made from materials outside the region CAFTA signed by the five Central American countries 22 Copyright 2005 - INCAE AGENDA Central America today CAFTA & Central America Negotiation of CAFTA Outcomes of CAFTA Issues around CAFTA Conclusions 23 Copyright 2005 - INCAE General Results of CAFTA Market Access No products are excluded from the agreement. Tariffs will be eliminated for all products, except: sugar-US, fresh potatoes and fresh onions-CR, white corn-C.A. More than 80% of U.S. exports of consumer and industrial products will be duty-free immediately upon entry into force of CAFTA, and 85% percent within five years. All remaining tariffs will be eliminated within ten years. Close to 98% of Central American exports to the U.S. exports will be duty-free immediately Agriculture More than half of current U.S. farm exports to C.A. will be duty-free immediately Each C.A. country will have a separate schedule of access for U.S. products. The U.S. will provide the same tariff treatment to each of the five countries, but will make country-specific commitments on tariff-rate quotas. Sensitive goods (rice, beef, dairy, corn, poultry, pork) will have tariffs phased out incrementally in 5, 10, 15, or 20 years from the time the agreement takes effect. The U.S. and Central America will work to resolve sanitary and phytosanitary barriers to agricultural trade, in particular problems and delays in food inspection procedures for meat and poultry. C.A. will move toward recognizing export eligibility for all plants inspected under the U.S. food safety and inspection system. 24 Copyright 2005 - INCAE General Results of CAFTA Textiles and Apparel Textiles and apparel will be duty-free and quota-free immediately if they meet the Agreement's rule of origin. The agreement's benefits for textiles and apparel will be retroactive to January 1, 2004. Some apparel made in Central America that contains certain fabrics from NAFTA partners Mexico and Canada will have duty-free access, as well as apparel containing certain fabrics and materials in "short supply" in the U.S. and C.A. A "de minimis" provision will allow limited amounts of third-country content into CAFTA apparel, giving producers in both the US and C.A. needed flexibility. Open Services Markets Substantial market access in service sectors (with very few exceptions): Telecommunications, energy, transportation Financial services, including banking, insurance and securities Distribution services, such as wholesaling, retailing, franchising, express delivery Computer, audiovisual, entertainment and related services Construction and engineering services Tourism Professional services (architects, engineers, accountants, advertising, etc.) Environmental services 25 Copyright 2005 - INCAE General Results of CAFTA Protections for Investors Secure, predictable legal framework for investors (all forms of investment: enterprises, debt, concessions, contracts and intellectual property) To provide U.S. investors in C.A. a basic set of substantive protections that Central American investors currently enjoy under the U.S. legal system. Access to Government Procurement Contracts U.S. suppliers are granted non-discriminatory rights to bid on contracts from Central American government ministries, agencies, departments and state-owned enterprises. Low-value contracts are excluded. Requires fair and transparent procurement procedures (bribery in government procurement is specified as a criminal offense under C.A. and U.S. laws.) Customs Procedures and Rules of Origin To ensure that only U.S. and C.A. goods benefit from the Agreement. Rules are designed to be easier to administer. Agreement requires transparency and efficiency in administering customs procedures, including the CAFTA rules of origin. Both parties will share information to combat illegal trans-shipment of goods. CAFTA facilitates rapid clearance through customs of express delivery shipments. 26 Copyright 2005 - INCAE General Results of CAFTA Protection and Promotion of Worker Rights CAFTA meets the labor objectives set out by Congress in the Trade Promotion Act of 2002 and makes labor obligations a core part of the agreement. Commit CAFTA countries to provide workers with improved access to procedures that protect their rights. All parties shall effectively enforce their own domestic labor laws, and this obligation is enforceable through the Agreement's dispute settlement procedures. Commitments and Cooperation to Protect the Environment Agreement fully meets the environmental objectives set out by Congress in TPA. Environmental obligations are part of the core text of the trade agreement. Dispute Settlement Core obligations of the Agreement, including labor and environment provisions, are subject to the dispute settlement provisions of the Agreement. Dispute panel procedures set high standards of openness and transparency. An enforcement mechanism includes monetary penalties to enforce commercial, labor and environmental obligations of the trade agreement. 27 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Expected Effects of CAFTA Study USITC (2004) Impact on U.S. Welfare 0.01% of GDP Exports growth to CA 15% (US$2.7 Bn) Imports growth from CA 12% (US$2.8 Bn) n.a. Impact on CA n.a. Hilaire and Yang (2004) Welfare 1.5% of GDP (US$3.9 Bn) Exports growth to U.S. 50% Brown et al. (2004) Welfare 0.17% of GDP (US$17.3 Bn) Welfare 4.4% of GDP (US$5.3 Bn) Exports growth to U.S. US$8.3 Bn Employment growth in textiles and apparel 28% Expected effects in Central America Welfare improvement for Central American countries Higher household income levels / Higher wages Positive changes in GDP, but not too significant Trade flows (exports and imports) will grow Significant increase in U.S. imports (higher protection in C.A. vs. the U.S.) 28 Copyright 2005 - INCAE AGENDA Central America today CAFTA & Central America Negotiation of CAFTA Outcomes of CAFTA Issues around CAFTA Conclusions 29 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Opponents Central America Unions and labor organizations Agricultural organizations (nonexporters) Environmental organizations Acdemic institutions Political parties United States Textiles and sugar producers AFL-CIO Environmental NGOs Democrats Some Republicans International OXFAM Alliance for Responsible Trade & Supporters Central America Business organizations Exporters Governments Acdemic institutions Political parties United States US Chamber of Commerce Emergency Comittee for American Trade Government USAID International The Wolrd Bank OAS IADB Copyright 2005 - INCAE 30 Criticisms The negotiating texts were not to be disclosed by any of the Central American nations until they were concluded U.S. subsidies to agricultural goods Civil society felt "excluded from the process", although a side room was set up to improve the communication between negotiators and interest groups Lack of transparency and information CAFTA would create unemployment and poverty "Underlying" interests of the U.S. Lack of a "Parallel Development Agenda" 31 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Central American Growth Competitiveness 2004-2005 Country Growth Competitiveness Index Rank 1 2 7 22 30 40 46 50 53 80 95 97 Technology Index Rank 3 1 11 32 37 19 62 55 69 79 96 93 Public Institutions Index Rank 3 21 10 20 17 51 55 47 46 84 81 100 Macroeconomic Stability Index Rank 3 15 1 27 21 41 24 64 53 79 97 82 Finland United States Singapore Chile Ireland Czech Republic China Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Nicaragua Honduras *In a sample of 104 countries Source: World Economic Forum (2004b) 32 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Central American Business Competitiveness 2004-2005 Country Business Competitiveness Index Rank Sophistication of Company Operations and Strategy Rank Quality of the National Business Environment Rank 2003 United States Finland Singapore Ireland Chile Czech Republic China Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua 2 1 8 21 32 35 46 45 64 86 95 94 2004 1 2 10 22 29 35 47 48 65 86 97 100 2003 2 4 12 17 34 33 42 32 58 76 89 92 2004 2 7 13 22 33 31 39 35 65 78 91 100 2003 2 1 4 22 30 38 44 47 65 88 96 93 2004 2 1 8 22 29 37 47 50 65 90 100 99 Source: World Economic Forum (2004a and 2004b) *The number of countries surveyed in 2004 was 104 and 102 countries in 2003 33 Copyright 2005 - INCAE AGENDA Central America today CAFTA & Central America Negotiation of CAFTA Outcomes of CAFTA Issues around CAFTA Conclusions 34 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Conclusions - The negotiation process It was not possible to end the negotiation process with a joint Central American negotiating position, since the consensusapproach was suspended A general conclusion from the negotiations process is that the different level of skills among the teams, the diversity of interests of sectors, and the relative urgency of some countries, made a unified position impossible 35 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Conclusions - Attitudes Most opposition to the agreement emerged from well organized civil society groups (unions, agricultural organizations, environmental groups, academic institutions, political parties, religious organizations, among others), part of the academy, and NGOs The main complaint of sectors opposing the treaty was that they felt excluded from this process, and that the negotiating texts were not to be disclosed by any of the Central American nations until they were concluded Numerous supportive statements and promoting actions in Central America, from exporters, business chambers, government officials, and international organizations, suggest a strong confidence and high expectations towards the ratification and implementation of the agreement 36 Copyright 2005 - INCAE Conclusions - Effects The U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) is a step forward in Central America's integration into the international economy of today Without CAFTA, it is possible that the region will lose the longterm benefits from improved trade and greater political, social and economic development CAFTA on its own might not be able to provide all these benefits, but it is hoped that it will be accompanied by policies that will make possible a favorable economic transformation The long-term benefits of the agreement for Central America appear to greatly outweigh the long-term costs. How much the region benefits will depend on how effectively the countries can manage the process of transforming their productive capacity 37 Copyright 2005 - INCAE THANK YOU 38 Copyright 2005 - INCAE ...
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