RHCh7 - Myers EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 7...

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Unformatted text preview: Myers EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 7 Learning James A. McCubbin, PhD Aneeq Ahmad, Ph.D. (Modified by Ray Hawkins, Ph.D.) Worth Publishers Learning How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlovs Experiments Extending Pavlovs Understanding Pavlovs Legacy Learning Operant Conditioning Skinners Experiments Extending Skinners Understanding Skinners Legacy Contrasting Classical & Operant Conditioning Learning Learning by Observation Banduras Experiments Applications of Observational Learning Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organisms behavior due to experience Association We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years ago John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago Associative Learning learning that two events occur together two stimuli a response and its consequences Associative Learning Learning to associate one stimulus with another. Associative Learning Learning to associate one stimulus with another. Associative Learning Learning to associate a response with a consequence. Associative Learning Learning to associate a response with a consequence. Ideas of classical conditioning originate from old philosophical theories. However, it was the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who elucidated classical conditioning. His work provided a basis for later behaviorists like John Watson . Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Sovfoto Film Pavlovs Experiments Before conditioning, food (Unconditioned Stimulus, US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response, UR). However, the tone (neutral stimulus) does not. Pavlovs Experiments During conditioning, the neutral stimulus (tone) and the US (food) are paired, resulting in salivation (UR). After conditioning, the neutral stimulus (now Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now Conditioned Response, CR) Acquisition Acquisition is the initial learning stage in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place. 1. In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the neutral stimulus needs to come before the unconditioned stimulus. 2. The time in between the two stimuli should be about half a second. Acquisition The CS needs to come half a second before the US for acquisition to occur. Classical Conditioning -Case study of Little Albert Film Extinction When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction. Spontaneous Recovery After a rest period, an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers, but if the CS (tone) persists alone, the CR becomes extinct again. Stimulus Generalization...
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This note was uploaded on 08/12/2008 for the course PSY 301 taught by Professor Pennebaker during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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RHCh7 - Myers EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 7...

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