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RHCh7 - Myers EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY(7th Ed Chapter 7...

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Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 7 Learning James A. McCubbin, PhD Aneeq Ahmad, Ph.D. (Modified by Ray Hawkins, Ph.D.) Worth Publishers
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Learning How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s Experiments Extending Pavlov’s Understanding Pavlov’s Legacy
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Learning Operant Conditioning Skinner’s Experiments Extending Skinner’s Understanding Skinner’s Legacy Contrasting Classical & Operant  Conditioning
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Learning Learning by Observation Bandura’s Experiments Applications of Observational  Learning
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Learning   Learning relatively  permanent  change in an  organism’s  behavior due  to experience
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Association We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur  in sequence Aristotle 2000 years ago John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago Associative Learning learning that two events occur together two stimuli a response and its consequences
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Associative Learning Learning to associate one stimulus with another.
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Associative Learning Learning to associate one stimulus with another.
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Associative Learning Learning to associate a response with a consequence.
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Associative Learning Learning to associate a response with a consequence.
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Ideas of classical conditioning originate from old philosophical  theories.  However, it was the Russian physiologist  Ivan Pavlov   who elucidated classical conditioning. His work provided a  basis for later behaviorists like  John Watson . Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Sovfoto Film
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Pavlov’s Experiments Before conditioning, food (Unconditioned Stimulus,  US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response,  UR). However, the tone (neutral stimulus) does not.
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Pavlov’s Experiments During conditioning, the neutral stimulus (tone) and  the US (food) are paired, resulting in salivation (UR).  After conditioning, the neutral stimulus (now  Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now  Conditioned Response, CR)
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Acquisition Acquisition is the initial learning stage in classical  conditioning in which an association between a neutral  stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place. 1. In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the  neutral stimulus needs to come before the  unconditioned stimulus. 2. The time in between the two stimuli should be  about half a second.
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Acquisition The CS needs to come  half a second before  the US  for acquisition to occur.
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Classical Conditioning -Case study of “Little Albert” Film
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Extinction When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone),  CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually  causes extinction.
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Spontaneous Recovery After a rest period, an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously  recovers, but if the CS (tone) persists alone, the CR becomes extinct  again.
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