RHCh9 - Myers' EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 9...

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Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 9 Thinking, Language, and  Intelligence James A. McCubbin, PhD Aneeq Ahmad, Ph.D. Clemson University (as modified by Ray Hawkins, Ph.D.) Worth Publishers
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Thinking Concepts Solving Problems Making Decisions and Forming  Judgments
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Language Language Development Thinking and Language Animal Thinking and Language 
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Intelligence What Is Intelligence? Theories of Intelligence Assessing Intelligence  Genetic and Environmental Influences  on Intelligence Group Differences in Intelligence Test  Scores
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Thinking Thinking, or  cognition,  refers to a process that  involves knowing, understanding, remembering, and  communicating.
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Cognitive Psychologists Thinking involves a number of mental activities,  which are listed below. Cognitive psychologists  study these in great detail. 1. Concepts 2. Problem solving 3. Decision making 4. Judgment formation
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Concepts The mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.  There are a variety of chairs but their common features define the  concept of a  chair .
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Category Hierarchies We organize concepts into category hierarchies. Courtesy of Christine Brune
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Development of Concepts We form some concepts with definitions. For  example, a triangle has three sides. Mostly, we  form concepts with mental images or typical  examples ( prototypes ). For example, a robin is a  prototype of a bird, but a penguin is not. Triangle (definition) Bird (mental image) Daniel J. Cox/ Getty Images J. Messerschmidt/ The Picture Cube Film
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Problem Solving Problem solving strategies include: 1. Trial and Error 2. Algorithms 3. Heuristics 4. Insight
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Algorithms Algorithms, which are very time consuming, exhaust  all possibilities before arriving at a solution.  Computers use algorithms. S P L O Y O C H Y G If we were to unscramble these letters to form a word  using an algorithmic approach, we would face  907,200 possibilities. Film
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Heuristics Heuristics are simple,  thinking strategies that  allow us to make  judgments and solve  problems efficiently.  Heuristics are less time  consuming, but more  error-prone than  algorithms. B2M Productions/Digital Version/Getty Images
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Heuristics Heuristics make it easier for us to use simple  principles to arrive at solutions to problems.  S P L O Y O C H Y G S P L O Y O C H G Y P S L O Y O C H G Y P S Y C H O L O G Y Put a Y at the end, and see if the word begins to make sense.
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Insight involves a sudden  novel realization of a  solution to a problem.  Humans and animals have  insight. Grande using boxes to
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RHCh9 - Myers' EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 9...

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