WA1-CHE122 - Written Assignment 1 Intermolecular Forces and...

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Written Assignment 1: Intermolecular Forces and Liquids and Solids Answer all assigned questions and problems, and show all work. Explain and give an example for each type of intermolecular force. (12 points) A ) dipole-dipole interaction : Dipole-Dipole interactions is the attraction between two polar molecules when two dipolar molecules interact with each other through space. It is a electrostatic attraction between the positive end of one molecule and the negative end of the other. The partially negative part of one of the polar molecules is attracted to the partially positive part of the second polar molecule. The best example of a dipole– dipole interaction is hydrogen chloride (HCl). The relatively positive end of a polar molecule will attract the relatively negative end of another HCl molecule. B ) dipole-induced dipole interaction : This type of attractive interaction, also depends on the presence of a polar molecule however, the second participating molecule need not be polar. The presence of the partial charges of the polar molecule causes a polarization, or distortion, of the electron distribution of the other molecule. Consequently, the second molecule acquires regions of partial positive and negative charge to becomes polar. The partial charges behave just like those of a permanently polar molecule and interact favourably with their counterparts in the polar molecule that originally induced them.The attractive interaction between a polar molecule and the induced dipole such as the distortion of a helium atom being approached by a dipole. C. Ion-dipole interaction : Ion-dipole interaction is an attractive force that is a result of the electrostatic attraction between an ion and a neutral molecule that has a dipole. D. dispersion forces (London forces ): Dispersion forces are the attractive forces that arise in the result of temporary dipoles induced in atoms or molecules. For example, in many helium atoms, one inducing a dipole on its neighbor atoms. E. Van der Waals forces: These type of forces are the residual attractive or repulsive
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forces between molecules or atomic groups that do not arise from a covalent bond, or electrostatic interaction. They are not like other forces that make up the molecule. The best example of Van der Waals forces is Geckos who can stick to walls and ceilings because of van der Waals forces. F. Hydrogen bond : It is a weak bond between two molecules which results from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other. It is a type of chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom that has a covalent link with one of the electronegative atoms, forms an electrostatic link with another electronegative atom in the same or another molecule. Such as in HF.
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