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lecture14-08 - Describe how reaching and grasping abilities...

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    Describe how reaching and grasping abilities develop  in the first year of life.
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    Development of reaching Within first 2 weeks, already directing arm towards objects. Some crude control of reach direction. Improves by the 5th month; consistently touch targets. Won’t reach for targets beyond arm’s length. Catching and anticipating target motion at 6 months. Distance accuracy develops more slowly, improving by 7 months.
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    QuickTimeª and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Increased use of visual feedback between 5 and 11 months
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    Early reach movements Initially use the trunk & shoulder (proximal joints) to reach for objects; use elbow less frequently. When babies do make large movements, can’t control inter-segmental dynamics. So hand oscillates.
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    Development of reaching Between 5 and 9 months see many changes to kinematics: 1) Straightening of the hand path 2) Reduced number of “submovements” 3) Reduced movement time
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    Development of grasping Newborns have grasp reflex (clasp object brought against the palm) – disappears by 6 months. 5 months: hand does not orient to object until contact 9 months: hand orients prior to contact (note visual information about orientation is available at 2 months). Pre-shape for object size. Still adjusting grip force by 7-8 years (grip force larger for larger objects). Use palmar grasp until about 12 months – then use fingers to grasp. Corresponds to rapid increase in the rate of myelination of corticospinal tracts at 12 months – responsible for distal musculature.
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    Describe Stratton’s experiment with inverting lenses. What are the implications?
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    Adaptation to different relation between vision and movement.
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  • Spring '08
  • GILDEN
  • Motor control, new motor skills, Change Blindness, new visuo-motor mapping, new visuo­motor relationships, Basic object perception

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