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RHCh2 - Myers EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY(7th Ed Chapter 2...

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Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behavior James A. McCubbin, PhD Aneeq Ahmad, Ph.D. (Modified by Ray Hawkins, Ph.D) Worth Publishers
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Neuroscience and Behavior Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate How Neurotransmitters Influence Us The Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System The Central Nervous System
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Neuroscience and Behavior The Endocrine System The Brain Older Brain Structures The Cerebral Cortex Our Divided Brain Studying Hemispheric Differences in  the Intact Brain
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History of Mind In 1800, Franz Gall  suggested that bumps of the  skull represented mental  abilities. His theory, though  incorrect, nevertheless  proposed that different  mental abilities were  modular. Phrenology Bettman/ Corbis
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Neural Communication Biological Psychology branch of psychology concerned with the links  between biology and behavior some biological psychologists call themselves  behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists,  behavior geneticists, physiological psychologist,  or   biopsychologists Necessity of   knowing biological processes underlying  human behavior and mental functioning, as much  behavior is motivated by biological needs Neuron a nerve cell the basic building block of the nervous system
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Neural Communication Dendrite the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that  receive messages and conduct impulses toward the  cell body Axon the extension of a neuron, ending in branching  terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to  other neurons or to muscles or glands Myelin [MY-uh-lin] Sheath   a layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the fibers of  many neurons enables vastly greater transmission speed of neutral  impulses
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Neural Communication
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Neural Communication Action Potential   A neural impulse. A brief electrical charge that travels down an  axon and is generated by the movement of positively charged  atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane.   Threshold   Each neuron receives excitatory and inhibitory signals from many  neurons. When the excitatory signals minus the inhibitory  signals exceed a minimum intensity (threshold) the neuron  fires an action potential.
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Neural Communication Action Potential Properties All-or-None Response:  A strong stimulus can trigger more  neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it does not affect  the action potentials strength or speed.
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