Constantine (Roman Emperor) – AD 330:first Christian emperorFeudalism: hierarchical system with servants, lordsNorman Invasion (1066):The age of castle-building: if you have a castle, outside was usually dangerousMagyars invasion: Byzantine kingdom was under attack from the east (-stans or modern day Hungarians)Arab invasion: mariners (men of the sea) were attack from the “south”Viking invasion: from the north in 793 AD; they would first attach churches bc that’s where the wealth wasSiene River:Fief: was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealtyAgricultural revolution (11thand 12thc.):windmills, horseshoes, horses replaced oxen with harnesses around shoulders rather than their necksSignificance of the crusades: needed a restoration of western confidence bc there was a rebirth of Islam, Pope Urban II asks devout Christians to defend the holy land in 1095 AD. There were about 8 crusades in total; overall a failure militarily. Only the first one was successful. Seljuk Turks were imposing on the Byzantine Empire whose job was to defend the holy land. This led to a surge of money going towards thepope and the church in general because people were leaving to go on these journeys and if they died, their wealth/land would be left for the ChurchVenice: Damascus plums:Canon law:Innocent III:Legate:Transubstantiation:St. Dominic:St. Francis of Assisi:Those who ruled/fought:Those who prayed:Those who labored:
University of bologna: Romantic love:Genghis Khan:Pax Mongolia: Ottoman Turks:1453significance of Mongol invasionsbubonic plague (Black Death)Papal Exile to Avignon, FranceThe Hundred Years War, 1337-1453Joan of Arcsignificance of the Hundred Years WarItalian city-statesFlorenceThe MediciHumanismWar of the Roses (England), 1455-85House of Tudor (Henry VII, VIII, Bloody Mary, Elizabeth)Ferdinand and Isabella (Aragon & Castille)rise of Atlantic powersCape BojadorMaliAzores-Madeiras-Canaries-Cape Verde – islands off West African coast (N to S)Vasco da Gama (Portugal)Christopher Columbus (Spain)Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494Ferdinand Magellan, 1519GoaNagasaki
tithe (noun)Johannes Gutenberg & the ReformationDonation of Constantine: document where Constantine called upon Pope Sylvester to cure him of his leprosy. Constantine was so grateful that the gave him total Papal Power but this was a forgery because the document had wording that did come about until 900 AD (Constantine’s Donation was supposedly written in 330 AD). This all lead to the questioning of why the Pope actually has powerWittenberg, Saxony (Germany): where Martin Luther was a priest and where he posted all the stuffsMartin Luther: 1483-1546; Augustinian order.