civil engineering_0072 - services such as water gas...

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services, such as water, gas, electricity, and telephone. After the building is occupied, the owner incurs costs for operation and main- tenance of the buildings. Such costs are a consequence of decisions made during building design. Often, preconstruction costs are permitted to be high so that initial costs can be kept low. For example, operating the building may be expensive because the design makes artificial lighting necessary when daylight could have been made available or because extra heating
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