Sociology Exam 3 Study Guide Educational Functions Manifest Functions o The process of acquiring knowledge. The bestowal of status through credentials Latent functions o The process of socialization o Hidden curriculum : the unspoken and unofficial norms, behavior, and values within schools. Social Mobility o Cultural Capital : cultural knowledge that serves as currency that helps to navigate a culture and alters experiences and the opportunities available. Social Strain Theory – Robert Merton People feel strain when exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain. Deviance depends on whether a society provides the means to achieve cultural goals The five ways to adapt to cultural goals. o Conformity : occurs when people accept the cultural goals and obtain them through approved means. o Innovation : occurs when people accept the cultural goals but reject the accepted means for achieving them. o Ritualism : Rejects the cultural goals, but adhere to the socially accepted means for achieving their goals. o Retreatism : When people abandon both the approved goals and the approved means for obtaining them. o Rebellion : occurs when people challenge both the approved goals and the approved means for achieving them and advocate an alternative set of goals or means. Who are victims of street crime? Men (with the exception of rape) Young (teens and young adults) Minority Low income (3 times more likely to be robbed, more likely to be assaulted)
Theoretical Perspectives on Crime and Deviance Functional Perspective: serves three functions o Clarifies rules o Unites a group o Promotes social change o Definition of deviant varies, but is found in all society o Deviance and social response sustain the moral foundation of society o Deviance may guide social change Conflict Analysis o Deviance reflects social inequality o People we commonly consider deviants share the trait of powerlessness. o The norms of any society generally reflect the interests of the rich and the powerful. White collar crime, corporate crime o Spitzer argues that deviant labels are applied to people who interfere with the operation of capitalism. o Laws and other norms reflect the interest of powerful members of society o Those who threaten the status quo are defined as deviant o Social injury caused by powerful people is less likely to be viewed as criminal than social injury is caused by people with little social power. Symbolic-Interaction Analysis o Learned through social interaction with deviants o Are more easily controlled when neighbors interact o Are identities we assume based on how others react to our behavior. Social Disorganization Theory o Breakdown of communal relationships o Lack of local connections o Low levels of supervision and control.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 7 pages?
- Spring '08
- Sociology, cultural goals, Changing Society