PS_Ear_Pathways - General schematic of the ear. 1 Major...

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1 General schematic of the ear.
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2 Major functions of the structures of the ear.
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3 Middle Ear Cartoon Schematic of middle ear: malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup). The purpose of the middle ear is to convert pressure waves in air (at the ear drum) into pressure waves in the fluid filled cochlea. Without the middle ear only a small fraction of the pressure entering your ear would get into the cochlea. Two factors help to covert air pressure to fluid pressure: (1) the area of tympanic membrane (ear drum) is 20 times larger than the area of the stapes, (2) the lever effect of the ossicles converts long movements of the ear drum into short movements of the stapes. The muscle attached to the malleus is the tensor typmpani. The muscle attached to the stapes is the tensor stapedius. They help hold the ossicles in place and they implement the acoustic reflex, which protects the inner ear from damage.
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Structure of the cochlea and the vestibular apparatus. The vestibular apparatus is composed of the semicircular canals, the utricle and the saccule, which sense angular acceleration, linear acceleration and gravity. The auditory and vestibular receptors are located in fluid filled holes in the
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This note was uploaded on 08/12/2008 for the course PSY 323P taught by Professor Geisler during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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PS_Ear_Pathways - General schematic of the ear. 1 Major...

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