[CHM113] 113ch7TAover - Group Trends Element Classes The...

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Group Trends Element Classes The Active Metals Selected Nonmetals
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Element Groups Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Chalcogens Halogens Noble Gases
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Metals and Nonmetals: Physical properties of metallic and non-metallic elements: Metalloids Have properties in between metals and nonmetals Common examples: semiconductors, silicon Metallic Elements Nonmetallic elements All are solids at R.T. (except Hg, liquid) Distinguishing luster (shiny) Vary greatly in appearance (s, l, and g) Non-lustrous, various colors Malleable and ductile (flexible) as solids Brittle, hard or soft Conduct heat and electricity Poor conductors Most oxides and halides are ionic solids Compounds of nonmetals are molecular
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Metals and Nonmetals: Redox and more physical properties of metals and nonmetals: Metallic Elements Nonmetallic elements Low ionization energies / Low electron affinities Forms positive ions easily Metals will be OXIDIZED when they under go chemical reactions VERY HIGH ionization energies / High electron affinities Forms negative ions Nonmetals will be REDUCED when they undergo chemical reactions with metals. High melting points Lower melting points Only one diatomic metal Hg 2 (as a 2+ ion) Seven diatomic molecules H 2 (g), N 2 (g), O 2 (g), F 2 (g), Cl 2 (g), Br 2 (l), I 2 (s)
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Metals and Nonmetals: Reactions with metals and nonmetals. Metallic Elements Nonmetallic elements Most metal oxides are basic Na 2 O (s) + H 2 O (l) 2 NaOH (aq) Only alkali metals and alkaline earth metals react with water (due to solubility) Most nonmetal oxides are acidic CO 2(g) + H 2 O (l) H 2 CO 3(aq) Adding an acid to a metal oxide results in a neutralization reaction NiO(s) + 2HCl(aq) NiCl 2(aq) + H 2 O (l) Adding a base to a nonmetal oxide results in a neutralization reaction CO 2(g) + 2NaOH (aq) Na 2 CO 3(aq) + H 2 O (l)
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1) Indicate whether the following are properties of the metals (M) or of the nonmetals (N). ____ Lustrous ____ Poor conductors of heat or electricity ____ Brittle ____ Oxides form ionic compounds ____ Low Ionization Energies ____ Halides form covalent compounds 2) What metal is a liquid at room temperature? Hg, mercury 3) Write the symbol for the following elements and identify whether they are metals (M), nonmetals (N), or metalloids (MLD) Lead Silver Antimony Sodium Selenium Germanium Sulfur Pb, M Ag, M Sb, MLD Na, M Se, N Ge, MLD S, N M N N M M N
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4) List the diatomic gases.
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