[CHM113] 113ch7TAover

[CHM113] 113ch7TAover - Group Trends Element Classes The...

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Group Trends Element Classes The Active Metals Selected Nonmetals
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Element Groups Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Chalcogens Halogens Noble Gases
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Metals and Nonmetals: Physical properties of metallic and non-metallic elements: Metalloids Have properties in between metals and nonmetals Common examples: semiconductors, silicon Metallic Elements Nonmetallic elements All are solids at R.T. (except Hg, liquid) Distinguishing luster (shiny) Vary greatly in appearance (s, l, and g) Non-lustrous, various colors Malleable and ductile (flexible) as solids Brittle, hard or soft Conduct heat and electricity Poor conductors Most oxides and halides are ionic solids Compounds of nonmetals are molecular
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Metals and Nonmetals: Redox and more physical properties of metals and nonmetals: Metallic Elements Nonmetallic elements Low ionization energies / Low electron affinities Forms positive ions easily Metals will be OXIDIZED when they under go chemical reactions VERY HIGH ionization energies / High electron affinities Forms negative ions Nonmetals will be REDUCED when they undergo chemical reactions with metals. High melting points Lower melting points Only one diatomic metal Hg 2 (as a 2+ ion) Seven diatomic molecules H 2 (g), N 2 (g), O 2 (g), F 2 (g), Cl 2 (g), Br 2 (l), I 2 (s)
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Metals and Nonmetals: Reactions with metals and nonmetals. Metallic Elements Nonmetallic elements Most metal oxides are basic Na 2 O (s) + H 2 O (l) 2 NaOH (aq) Only alkali metals and alkaline earth metals react with water (due to solubility) Most nonmetal oxides are acidic CO 2(g) + H 2 O (l) H 2 CO 3(aq) Adding an acid to a metal oxide results in a neutralization reaction NiO(s) + 2HCl(aq) NiCl 2(aq) + H 2 O (l) Adding a base to a nonmetal oxide results in a neutralization reaction CO 2(g) + 2NaOH (aq) Na 2 CO 3(aq) + H 2 O (l)
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1) Indicate whether the following are properties of the metals (M) or of the nonmetals (N). ____ Lustrous ____ Poor conductors of heat or electricity ____ Brittle ____ Oxides form ionic compounds ____ Low Ionization Energies ____ Halides form covalent compounds 2) What metal is a liquid at room temperature? Hg, mercury
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[CHM113] 113ch7TAover - Group Trends Element Classes The...

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