The Perfect Tenses

The Perfect Tenses - The Perfect Tenses Introduction The...

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The Perfect Tenses I. Introduction. The perfect tenses [ tiempos perfectos ] are compound tenses [ tiempos compuestos ]; that is, they are made up of two parts, a helping verb [ verbo auxiliar ] and a past participle [ participio pasado ], for example: he hablado ( I have spoken ), habías hablado ( you had spoken ), habremos hablado ( we will have spoken ). There are three main perfect tenses in the indicative: present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect. They are “perfect” or “pefective”, as opposed to “imperfect” or “imperfective”, in the sense that they portray an action or state as completed and not in progress, from the point of view of present, past, or future time, respectively. The perfect tenses in Spanish are formed with: 1. The helping verb haber , in the appropriate tense and mood, plus: 2. The masculine singular form of the past participle. II. Past participles are normally formed by taking the infinitive, dropping off the last two letters, and adding -ado for -ar verbs, or -ido for -er and -ir verbs: hablar > hablado ( spoken ), comer > comido ( eaten ), vivir > vivido ( lived ) Second- and third-conjugation verbs whose stems end in a vowel need a written accent mark: leer > leído ; oír > oído . Some verbs with irregular past participles include: III. abr ir V. abier to VII. opened VIII. cub rir IX. cubie rto X. closed, shut XI. dec ir XII. dicho XIII. said, told XIV. des XV. descr XVI. described
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cri bir ito XVII. des cub rir XVIII. descu biert o XIX. discovered XX. dev olv er XXI.
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