Study Notes - *NUTRITION NOTES FOR FINAL EXAM Water...

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**NUTRITION NOTES FOR FINAL EXAM!!** Water, Electrolytes, Sports Drinks p. 263-273, 376-379, 408-412 Water & Body Composition Muscular males 70% Typical adult male 60% Typical adult female 50% Obese individuals 40% Functions of Water Transport of nutrients Cleanses the blood of wastes (CO 2 , urea) Solvent for minerals, vitamins, amino acids, glucose Participates in chemical reactions Acts as a lubricant around joints Protection from compression brain & spinal cord, amniotic fluid Aids in maintaining body temperature Water Balance Intake is regulated by hypothalamus. Excretion is controlled by the brain and the kidney. Problems if low or high intake Dehydration Water intoxication (rare) Regulation of Body Water Kidney Feedback mechanism is based on the osmolality of fluids Glucose Protein Electrolytes - sodium Conservation of Water Excess sweating – causes blood to become hypertonic Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus detect the increased blood osmolality Pituitary gland releases ADH ADH causes increased water absorption by the kidneys Daily Water Needs (sedentary) Women (2403 kcal) DRI: 2.7 L including 70-80% from drink
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drink 1,890-2,160 mL = 7.9 - 9.0 cups/day Institute of Med.: 9 c Men (3067 kcal) DRI: 3.7 L including 70-80% from drink drink 2,590-2,960 mL = 10.8 - 12.3 cups/day Institute of Med.: 13 c Water Balance Adult Female (60 kg) Water Loss (mL) Urine 1,100 Feces 100 Lungs 200 Skin 600 Total 2,000 Water Intake (mL) Fluids 1,000 Food 700 Metabolism 300 Total 2,000 Aerobic Metabolism CHO + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy 350g 1000 mL Q A good guideline for daily fluid drank? 10 mL per kg of body weight 10 mL per cm of height 1 mL per Cal of energy expended 10 mL per gram of protein intake 10 mL per gram of CHO intake Factors that increase water needs Alcohol consumption Diseases (diabetes) Physical Activity Hot environments Increased dietary fiber, protein, salt, sugar Pregnancy & breastfeeding Diarrhea, vomiting, fever Medications (diuretics) Airplanes Very young or old age Urinary Output
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Major avenue for water loss for sedentary individuals Increased by: diuretics caffeine, alcohol high protein diets Minerals in Water Supply Ca Na ** Mg Fe Z Lead ** Fluoride is often added Water Terms Hard (Ca & Mg) Soft (Na) Distilled Filtered – charcoal filters Mineral – often high in Na Purified – often distilled (contains no minerals) Carbonated (bubbling or sparkling) Well Spring Public Water Systems Treatment includes addition of disinfectant (usually chlorine) Cl linked to colon & other cancers No practical substitute that is safer than Cl Tested regularly for contamination Public must be notified within 24 h of discovering dangerous contaminants Bottled Water Sales are increasing each year Classified as a food – regulated Often tastes better – disinfect with ozone (odourless) Tends to be low in fluoride
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