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PA and Health Midterm Study Notes

PA and Health Midterm Study Notes - PA and Health Midterm...

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PA and Health Midterm Study Notes Measurement of PA and Fitness What is PA? o Bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle action that substantially increases energy expenditure o Occupational activity, chores, leisure-time, exercise o Exercise: planned, structured and/or repetitive movements performed to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness or health Energy expenditure o 60-65% BMR o 5-10% thermic effect of food o 25-35% PA most variable among different people Reliable and Valid measure of PA o Behavioural epidemiology: observation and study of behaviours, including physical inactivity, that lead to disease or premature death and of the distribution of these behaviours Relationships between behaviour and disease Study of the behaviour, its distribution in a population, and its determinants Determine how the behaviour can be altered environmental intervention o Descriptive epidemiology Age, sex, ethnicity, health status, geo location Tracking trends, interventions Disease risk Measures of PA o Occupation classification o Behavioural observation o Physiological markers doubly labelled water, heart rate o Dietary intake o Motion sensors o Self-report questionnaires History o Before 1970 20/34 epidemiologic studies of CHD and PA Only used occupational classification no measure of leisure-time PA Today, jobs are more sedentary and people do exercise for otherwise sedentary lifestyle Distribution of activity level is flattening out o Since 1960s 50 PA questionnaires Questionnaires o Goal of questionnaires: estimate the energy expenditure attributable to participation in specific types of PA (household, occupational, or leisure activity) o No gold standard no way to compare results o Hard to quantify o Used imperfect measures dietary intake, DLW, HR, motion sensors o Used other variables influenced by PA body fat, blood pressure, blood lipids, etc… o Used direct or indirect calorimetry Calorimetry o 1 kcal = amount of heat (4.2kJ) required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1 C o Direct highly accurate not practical Measurement of heat production of an individual in a sealed, insulated chamber Size of chamber limits potential for PA o Indirect Estimating energy expenditure from O2 consumption and CO2 production 5 kcal per 1L of O2 consumed VO2 max Average high in the 30s or 40s Resting 3mL/kg/min Portable systems available Assess energy costs of specific activities for PA questionnaires and for assessing the validity of a variety of motion-sensing devices as measures of PA
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Relation between workload and VO2 linear as exercise intensity increases, VO2 increases o Relation between VO2 and Heart Rate is also linear Energy expenditure units o Be able to convert units!!
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PA and Health Midterm Study Notes - PA and Health Midterm...

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