Pulmonary embolism(OXY) - INTRODUCTION Pulmonary embolism(PE is an extremely common and highly lethal condition that is a leading cause of death in all

Pulmonary embolism(OXY) - INTRODUCTION Pulmonary...

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INTRODUCTIONPulmonary embolism (PE) is an extremely common and highly lethalcondition that is a leading cause of death in all age groups. A good clinicianactively seeks the diagnosis as soon as any suspicion of PE whatsoever iswarranted, because prompt diagnosis and treatment can dramatically reducethe mortality rate and morbidity of the disease. Unfortunately, the diagnosisis missed more often than it is made, because PE often causes only vagueand nonspecific symptoms. The most sobering lessons about PE are those obtained from a careful studyof the autopsy literature. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and PE are much morecommon than usually realized. Most patients with DVT develop PE and themajority of cases are unrecognized clinically. Untreated, approximately onethird of patients who survive an initial PE die of a future embolic episode.This is true whether the initial embolism is small or large. Most cases of PE are diagnosed at autopsy, and most who die of PE have nothad any diagnostic workup or treatment of the disease. In most cases, thediagnosis has not even been considered, even when classic signs andsymptoms are documented in the medical chart. Sadly, appropriatediagnostic and therapeutic management often is withheld even when thepotential diagnosis of PE has been considered explicitly and documented inthe chart.
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ETIOLOGYCauses include prolonged sitting, bedrest, or enforced immobilization (suchas on long flights or car journeys), fractures, recent surgery or trauma(especially hip, knee, or gynaecological surgery), or childbirth within theprevious six months. DVT has become a controversial issue for the air
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  • Spring '17
  • Danilo D. Cruz
  • molecular weight heparin, resaerch, weight heparin

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